Installation Guide

Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for all architectures

Edition 1.0

Link to Original Document

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

Rüdiger Landmann

Red Hat Engineering Content Services

David Cantrell

VNC installation 

Hans De Goede

iSCSI 

Jon Masters

Driver updates 

Edited by

Rüdiger Landmann


Legal Notice

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Abstract
This manual explains how to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation program (anaconda) and to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 systems, 64-bit POWER systems, and IBM System z. It also covers advanced installation methods such as kickstart installations, PXE installations, and installations over VNC. Finally, it describes common post-installation tasks and explains how to troubleshoot installation problems.

Preface
1. Document Conventions
1.1. Typographic Conventions
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
1.3. Notes and Warnings
2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback
2.1. Do You Need Help?
2.2. We Need Feedback!
3. Acknowledgements
Introduction
1. What's New in this Edition?
2. Architecture-specific Information
3. Installation in Virtualized Environments
4. More to Come
5. Where to Find Other Manuals
1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux
2. Making Media
2.1. Making an installation DVD
2.2. Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source
2.3. Making Minimal Boot Media
2.3.1. UEFI-based systems
I. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting
3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
3.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
3.3.1. Hardware RAID
3.3.2. Software RAID
3.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
3.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
3.5. Selecting an Installation Method
3.6. Choose a boot method
4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
5. System Specifications List
6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
7. Booting the Installer
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
7.1.2. Additional Boot Options
7.2. The Boot Menu
7.3. Installing from a Different Source
7.4. Booting from the Network using PXE
8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
8.2. Language Selection
8.3. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from DVD
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
8.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
8.4. Verifying Media
9. Installing using anaconda
9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9.4. Keyboard Configuration
9.5. Storage Devices
9.5.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
9.6. Setting the Hostname
9.6.1. Edit Network Connections
9.7. Time Zone Configuration
9.8. Set the Root Password
9.9. Assign Storage Devices
9.10. Initializing the Hard Disk
9.11. Upgrading an Existing System
9.11.1. The Upgrade Dialog
9.11.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
9.11.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
9.12. Disk Partitioning Setup
9.13. Encrypt Partitions
9.14. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
9.14.1. Create Storage
9.14.2. Adding Partitions
9.14.3. Create Software RAID
9.14.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
9.14.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.15. Write changes to disk
9.16. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
9.16.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
9.16.2. Rescue Mode
9.16.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
9.17. Package Group Selection
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
9.18. Installing Packages
9.19. Installation Complete
10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
10.3. Trouble During the Installation
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
10.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
10.4.8. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting
11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
11.2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p
11.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
11.3.1. Hardware RAID
11.3.2. Software RAID
11.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
11.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
11.5. Choose a boot method
12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
13.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation
13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
13.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
14. Booting the Installer
14.1. The Boot Menu
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
14.3. Booting from the Network using PXE
15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
15.2. Language Selection
15.3. Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
15.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
15.4. Verifying Media
16. Installing using anaconda
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
16.4. Using the HMC vterm
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16.6. Storage Devices
16.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
16.8. Setting the Hostname
16.8.1. Edit Network Connections
16.9. Time Zone Configuration
16.10. Set the Root Password
16.11. Assign Storage Devices
16.12. Initializing the Hard Disk
16.13. Upgrading an Existing System
16.13.1. The Upgrade Dialog
16.13.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
16.14. Disk Partitioning Setup
16.15. Encrypt Partitions
16.16. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
16.16.1. Create Storage
16.16.2. Adding Partitions
16.16.3. Create Software RAID
16.16.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
16.16.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
16.17. Write changes to disk
16.18. Package Group Selection
16.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
16.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection
16.19. Installing Packages
16.20. Installation Complete
17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
17.3. Trouble During the Installation
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users
17.3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
17.4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting
18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
18.3.2. Installation using X11
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
20.1. Installing under z/VM
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD
20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
21.1. A Note on Terminals
22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
22.3. Language Selection
22.4. Installation Method
22.4.1. Installing from DVD
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
22.4.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
22.5. Verifying Media
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program Output
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23.6. Storage Devices
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.7. Setting the Hostname
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections
23.8. Time Zone Configuration
23.9. Set the Root Password
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
23.14. Encrypt Partitions
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
23.15.1. Create Storage
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
23.16. Write changes to disk
23.17. Package Group Selection
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
23.18. Installing Packages
23.19. Installation Complete
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL)
24. Troubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
24.2. Trouble During the Installation
24.2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
24.2.2. Saving traceback messages
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
24.2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
24.3. Problems After Installation
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
24.3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
25.1. Adding DASDs
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs
25.3. Adding a Network Device
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.1. Required parameters
26.2. The z/VM configuration file
26.3. Installation network parameters
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters
26.5. Loader parameters
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z
27.3. Online resources
IV. Advanced installation options
28. Boot Options
28.1. Configuring the Installation System at the Boot Menu
28.1.1. Specifying the Language
28.1.2. Configuring the Interface
28.1.3. Updating anaconda
28.1.4. Specifying the Installation Method
28.1.5. Manually Configuring the Network Settings
28.2. Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System
28.2.1. Enabling Remote Access with VNC
28.2.2. Connecting the Installation System to a VNC Listener
28.2.3. Enabling Remote Access with Telnet
28.3. Logging to a Remote System During the Installation
28.3.1. Configuring a Log Server
28.4. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
28.5. Enhancing Hardware Support
28.5.1. Overriding Automatic Hardware Detection
28.6. Using the Maintenance Boot Modes
28.6.1. Verifying boot media
28.6.2. Booting Your Computer with the Rescue Mode
28.6.3. Upgrading your computer
29. Installing Without Media
29.1. Retrieving Boot Files
29.2. Editing the GRUB Configuration
29.3. Booting to Installation
30. Setting Up an Installation Server
30.1. Setting up the Network Server
30.2. PXE Boot Configuration
30.3. Configuring the DHCP Server
30.4. Starting the tftp Server
30.5. Adding a Custom Boot Message
30.6. Performing the PXE Installation
31. Installing Through VNC
31.1. VNC Viewer
31.2. VNC Modes in Anaconda
31.2.1. Direct Mode
31.2.2. Connect Mode
31.3. Installation Using VNC
31.3.1. Installation Example
31.3.2. Kickstart Considerations
31.3.3. Firewall Considerations
31.4. References
32. Kickstart Installations
32.1. What are Kickstart Installations?
32.2. How Do You Perform a Kickstart Installation?
32.3. Creating the Kickstart File
32.4. Kickstart Options
32.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example
32.5. Package Selection
32.6. Pre-installation Script
32.6.1. Example
32.7. Post-installation Script
32.7.1. Examples
32.8. Making the Kickstart File Available
32.8.1. Creating Kickstart Boot Media
32.8.2. Making the Kickstart File Available on the Network
32.9. Making the Installation Tree Available
32.10. Starting a Kickstart Installation
33. Kickstart Configurator
33.1. Basic Configuration
33.2. Installation Method
33.3. Boot Loader Options
33.4. Partition Information
33.4.1. Creating Partitions
33.5. Network Configuration
33.6. Authentication
33.7. Firewall Configuration
33.7.1. SELinux Configuration
33.8. Display Configuration
33.9. Package Selection
33.10. Pre-Installation Script
33.11. Post-Installation Script
33.11.1. Chroot Environment
33.11.2. Use an Interpreter
33.12. Saving the File
V. After installation
34. Firstboot
34.1. License Agreement
34.2. Set Up Software Updates
34.2.1. Choose Server
34.2.2. Red Hat Login
34.2.3. Create Profile
34.2.4. Review Subscription
34.2.5. Finish Updates Setup
34.3. Create User
34.3.1. Authentication Configuration
34.4. Date and Time
34.5. Kdump
35. Your Next Steps
35.1. Updating Your System
35.1.1. Driver update rpm packages
35.2. Finishing an Upgrade
35.3. Switching to a Graphical Login
35.3.1. Enabling Access to Software Repositories from the Command Line
36. Basic System Recovery
36.1. Rescue Mode
36.1.1. Common Problems
36.1.2. Booting into Rescue Mode
36.1.3. Booting into Single-User Mode
36.1.4. Booting into Emergency Mode
36.2. Rescue Mode on POWER Systems
36.2.1. Special Considerations for Accessing the SCSI Utilities from Rescue Mode
37. Upgrading Your Current System
37.1. Determining Whether to Upgrade or Re-Install
37.2. Upgrading Your System
38. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from x86-based systems
38.1. Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on the computer
38.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and another operating system
38.2.1. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a Microsoft Windows operating system
38.2.2. Your computer dual-boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux and a different Linux distribution
38.3. Replacing Red Hat Enterprise Linux with MS-DOS or legacy versions of Microsoft Windows
39. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from IBM System z
39.1. Running a Different Operating System on your z/VM Guest or LPAR
VI. Technical appendixes
A. An Introduction to Disk Partitions
A.1. Hard Disk Basic Concepts
A.1.1. It is Not What You Write, it is How You Write It
A.1.2. Partitions: Turning One Drive Into Many
A.1.3. Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions
A.1.4. Making Room For Red Hat Enterprise Linux
A.1.5. Partition Naming Scheme
A.1.6. Disk Partitions and Other Operating Systems
A.1.7. Disk Partitions and Mount Points
A.1.8. How Many Partitions?
B. ISCSI disks
B.1. iSCSI disks in anaconda
B.2. iSCSI disks during start up
C. Disk Encryption
C.1. What is block device encryption?
C.2. Encrypting block devices using dm-crypt/LUKS
C.2.1. Overview of LUKS
C.2.2. How will I access the encrypted devices after installation? (System Startup)
C.2.3. Choosing a Good Passphrase
C.3. Creating Encrypted Block Devices in Anaconda
C.3.1. What Kinds of Block Devices Can Be Encrypted?
C.3.2. Saving Passphrases
C.3.3. Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases
C.4. Creating Encrypted Block Devices on the Installed System After Installation
C.4.1. Create the block devices
C.4.2. Optional: Fill the device with random data
C.4.3. Format the device as a dm-crypt/LUKS encrypted device
C.4.4. Create a mapping to allow access to the device's decrypted contents
C.4.5. Create filesystems on the mapped device, or continue to build complex storage structures using the mapped device
C.4.6. Add the mapping information to /etc/crypttab
C.4.7. Add an entry to /etc/fstab
C.5. Common Post-Installation Tasks
C.5.1. Set a randomly generated key as an additional way to access an encrypted block device
C.5.2. Add a new passphrase to an existing device
C.5.3. Remove a passphrase or key from a device
D. Understanding LVM
E. The GRUB Boot Loader
E.1. Boot Loaders and System Architecture
E.2. GRUB
E.2.1. GRUB and the x86 Boot Process
E.2.2. Features of GRUB
E.3. Installing GRUB
E.4. GRUB Terminology
E.4.1. Device Names
E.4.2. File Names and Blocklists
E.4.3. The Root File System and GRUB
E.5. GRUB Interfaces
E.5.1. Interfaces Load Order
E.6. GRUB Commands
E.7. GRUB Menu Configuration File
E.7.1. Configuration File Structure
E.7.2. Configuration File Directives
E.8. Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
E.9. Additional Resources
E.9.1. Installed Documentation
E.9.2. Useful Websites
E.9.3. Related Books
F. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
F.1. The Boot Process
F.2. A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
F.2.1. The BIOS
F.2.2. The Boot Loader
F.2.3. The Kernel
F.2.4. The /sbin/init Program
F.2.5. Job definitions
F.3. Running Additional Programs at Boot Time
F.4. SysV Init Runlevels
F.4.1. Runlevels
F.4.2. Runlevel Utilities
F.5. Shutting Down
G. Alternatives to busybox commands
H. Other Technical Documentation
I. Revision History
Index

Preface

1. Document Conventions

This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
In PDF and paper editions, this manual uses typefaces drawn from the Liberation Fonts set. The Liberation Fonts set is also used in HTML editions if the set is installed on your system. If not, alternative but equivalent typefaces are displayed. Note: Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and later includes the Liberation Fonts set by default.

1.1. Typographic Conventions

Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Mono-spaced Bold
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keycaps and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to return to your X-Windows session.
The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. The second highlights two key combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include filesystem for file systems, file for files, and dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
Proportional Bold
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose SystemPreferencesMouse from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose ApplicationsAccessoriesCharacter Map from the main menu bar. Next, choose SearchFind… from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose EditPaste from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic or Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type ssh username@domain.name at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is example.com and your username on that machine is john, type ssh john@example.com.
The mount -o remount file-system command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the /home file system, the command is mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the rpm -q package command. It will return a result as follows: package-version-release.
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.

1.2. Pull-quote Conventions

Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books        Desktop   documentation  drafts  mss    photos   stuff  svn
books_tests  Desktop1  downloads      images  notes  scripts  svgs
Source-code listings are also set in mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
package org.jboss.book.jca.ex1;

import javax.naming.InitialContext;

public class ExClient
{
   public static void main(String args[]) 
       throws Exception
   {
      InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
      Object         ref    = iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
      EchoHome       home   = (EchoHome) ref;
      Echo           echo   = home.create();

      System.out.println("Created Echo");

      System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
   }
}

1.3. Notes and Warnings

Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.

Note

Notes are tips, shortcuts or alternative approaches to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.

Important

Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring a box labeled 'Important' will not cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.

Warning

Warnings should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.

2. Getting Help and Giving Feedback

2.1. Do You Need Help?

If you experience difficulty with a procedure described in this documentation, visit the Red Hat Customer Portal at http://access.redhat.com. Through the customer portal, you can:
  • search or browse through a knowledgebase of technical support articles about Red Hat products.
  • submit a support case to Red Hat Global Support Services (GSS).
  • access other product documentation.
Red Hat also hosts a large number of electronic mailing lists for discussion of Red Hat software and technology. You can find a list of publicly available mailing lists at https://www.redhat.com/mailman/listinfo. Click on the name of any mailing list to subscribe to that list or to access the list archives.

2.2. We Need Feedback!

If you find a typographical error in this manual, or if you have thought of a way to make this manual better, we would love to hear from you! Please submit a report in Bugzilla: http://bugzilla.redhat.com/ against the product Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
When submitting a bug report, be sure to mention the manual's identifier: doc-Installation_Guide
If you have a suggestion for improving the documentation, try to be as specific as possible when describing it. If you have found an error, please include the section number and some of the surrounding text so we can find it easily.

3. Acknowledgements

Certain portions of this text first appeared in the Fedora Installation Guide, copyright © 2009 Red Hat, Inc. and others, published by the Fedora Project at http://docs.fedoraproject.org/install-guide/.

Introduction

Welcome to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide.
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.

Note

Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the documentation being finalized. You can find the Release Notes on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the /usr/share/doc/redhat-release-notes-6<variant>/ directory after installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or Desktop.

1. What's New in this Edition?

Be sure to review the Appendix I, Revision History for features and bug fixes for this manual.

2. Architecture-specific Information

This manual is divided into different sections:
Part I, “ x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting”, Part II, “IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting”, and Part III, “IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting” are architecture specific, and give instructions on installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 with specific reference to 32- and 64-bit Intel and AMD systems, IBM POWER-based systems, and IBM System z architecture systems, respectively.
Part IV, “Advanced installation options” covers more advanced methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including: boot options, installing without mediam, installing through VNC, and using kickstart to automate the installation process.
Part V, “After installation” deals with a number of common tasks, covers finalizing the installation and, as well as some installation-related tasks that you might perform at some time in the future. These include using a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disk to rescue a damaged system, upgrading to a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux from your computer.
Part VI, “Technical appendixes” does not contain procedures, but provides technical background that you might find helpful to understand the options that Red Hat Enterprise Linux offers you at various points in the installation process.

3. Installation in Virtualized Environments

Virtualization is a broad computing term for running software, usually operating systems, concurrently and isolated from other programs on one system. Virtualization uses a hypervisor, a software layer that controls hardware and provides guest operating systems with access to underlying hardware. The hypervisor allows multiple operating systems to run on the same physical system by giving the guest operating system virtualized hardware.
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 as a fully virtualized guest on a 64-bit x86 host system or in a logical partition (LPAR) on a POWER or IBM System z system.
For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment on a 64-bit x86 host system, refer to "Part II. Installation" in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Virtualization Guide, available from http://docs.redhat.com/. For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment under PowerVM on IBM System p, refer to PowerVM Virtualization on IBM System p: Introduction and Configuration, available from http://publib-b.boulder.ibm.com/abstracts/sg247940.html. For more information about installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 in a virtualized environment under z/VM on System z, refer to Part III, “IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting” in this guide.

4. More to Come

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide is part of Red Hat's ongoing commitment to provide useful and timely support and information to Red Hat Enterprise Linux users.

5. Where to Find Other Manuals

Red Hat Enterprise Linux manuals are available online at https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
In addition to this manual, which covers installation, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide contains further information on system administration and security.
HTML and PDF versions of the guides are available online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/.

Note

Although this manual reflects the most current information possible, read the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Release Notes for information that may not have been available prior to the documentation being finalized. You can find the Release Notes on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, online at http://www.redhat.com/docs/, or in the /usr/share/doc/redhat-release-notes-6<variant>/ directory after installation, where <variant> is Server, Client, or Desktop.

Chapter 1. Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux

If you have a Red Hat subscription, you can download ISO image files of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD from the Software & Download Center that is part of the Red Hat customer portal. If you do not already have a subscription, either purchase one or obtain a free evaluation subscription from the Software & Download Center at https://access.redhat.com/downloads.
If you have a subscription or evaluation subscription, follow these steps to obtain the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 ISO image files:
  1. Visit the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login and enter your Login and Password.
  2. Click Downloads to visit the Software & Download Center.
  3. Click the Download your software link to obtain a list of all currently supported Red Hat Enterprise Linux products.
  4. Select a version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and click on the link to that version. Note that you only need to select the most current version of the product; each release is a complete, functional version of the operating system and does not require previous releases. Ensure that you select a server release if you plan to deploy Red Hat Enterprise Linux to a server, or a desktop release if you plan to deploy to a client machine.
  5. Each version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux is available as an ISO image file for a single DVD, around 3 GB – 4 GB in size.
    Selecting ISO Image Files
    The page lists ISO image files.
    Figure 1.1. Selecting ISO Image Files

    This same page contains links to ISO image files for the source code for Red Hat Enterprise Linux. You do not need to download the source code to install the operating system.
    The page also contains links to ISO image files to make minimal boot media. These image files are always named boot.iso and are around 150 MB in size. You cannot install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from these files, but you can use these files to create bootable CDs, DVDs, or USB devices with which you can boot a system when you plan to complete the installation from an installation source available on a hard disk or over a network connection. Refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for information on how to use the boot.iso file.
    Note that the link to every image file is accompanied by a checksum. You can use this value to verify that a Red Hat Enterprise Linux image file is geniune and uncorrupted.
After you download an ISO image file of the installation DVD from the Red Hat Network, you can:

Chapter 2. Making Media

2.1. Making an installation DVD
2.2. Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source
2.3. Making Minimal Boot Media
2.3.1. UEFI-based systems
Use the methods described in this section to create the following types of installation and boot media:
The following table indicates the types of boot and installation media available for different architectures and notes the image file that you need to produce the media.
Table 2.1. Boot and installation media
Architecture Installation DVD Installation USB flash drive Boot CD or boot DVD Boot USB flash drive
BIOS-based 32-bit x86 x86 DVD ISO image file x86 DVD ISO image file boot.iso boot.iso
UEFI-based 32-bit x86 Not available
BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64 x86_64 DVD ISO image file (to install 64-bit operating system) or x86 DVD ISO image file (to install 32-bit operating system) x86_64 DVD ISO image file (to install 64-bit operating system) or x86 DVD ISO image file (to install 32-bit operating system) boot.iso boot.iso
UEFI-based AMD64 and Intel 64 x86_64 DVD ISO image file Not available Not available efiboot.img (from x86_64 DVD ISO image file)
POWER (64-bit only) ppc DVD ISO image file Not available boot.iso Not available
System z s390 DVD ISO image file Not available Not available Not available

2.1. Making an installation DVD

You can make an installation DVD using the CD or DVD burning software on your computer.
The exact series of steps that produces a DVD from an ISO image file varies greatly from computer to computer, depending on the operating system and disc burning software installed. Use this procedure as a general guide. You might be able to omit certain steps on your computer, or might have to perform some of the steps in a different order from the order described here.
Make sure that your disc burning software is capable of burning discs from image files. Although this is true of most disc burning software, exceptions exist.
In particular, note that the disc burning feature built into Windows XP and Windows Vista cannot burn DVDs; and that earlier Windows operating systems did not have any disc burning capability installed by default at all. Therefore, if your computer has a Windows operating system prior to Windows 7 installed on it, you need a separate piece of software for this task. Examples of popular disc burning software for Windows that you might already have on your computer include Nero Burning ROM and Roxio Creator.
Most widely used disc burning software for Linux, such as Brasero and K3b has the built-in ability to burn discs from ISO image files.
  1. Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  2. Insert a blank, writeable DVD into your computer's DVD burner. On some computers, a window opens and displays various options when you insert the disc. If you see a window like this, look for an option to launch your chosen disc burning program. If you do not see an option like this, close the window and launch the program manually.
  3. Launch your disc burning program. On some computers, you can do this by right-clicking (or control-clicking) on the image file and selecting a menu option with a label like Copy image to DVD, or Copy CD or DVD image. Other computers might provide you with a menu option to launch your chosen disc burning program, either directly or with an option like Open With. If none of these options are available on your computer, launch the program from an icon on your desktop, in a menu of applications such as the Start menu on Windows operating systems.
  4. In your disc burning program, select the option to burn a disc from an image file. For example, in Brasero, this option is called Burn image.
    Note that you can skip this step when using certain disc burning software.
  5. Browse to the ISO image file that you downloaded previously and select it for burning.
  6. Click the button that starts the burning process.
On some computers, the option to burn a disc from an ISO file is integrated into a context menu in the file browser. For example, when you right-click an ISO file on a computer with a Linux or UNIX operating system that runs the GNOME desktop, the Nautilus file browser presents you with the option to Write to disk.

2.2. Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source

Unusual USB Media

In a few cases with oddly formatted or partitioned USB media, image writing may fail.
You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit x86 systems and BIOS-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems using a USB flash drive, provided that your hardware supports booting from this type of device. Note that you cannot install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on POWER systems or UEFI-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems from a USB flash drive, although you can use a USB flash drive to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer on UEFI-based AMD64 and Intel 64 systems — refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
This procedure describes the steps to take on a system that runs Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but the commands are broadly similar for any Linux or UNIX operating system.

Warning — These instructions could destroy data

When you perform this procedure any data on the USB flash drive is destroyed with no warning. Make sure that you specify the correct USB flash drive, and make sure that this flash drive does not contain any data that you want to keep.
  1. Plug in your USB flash drive.
  2. Find the device name for your USB flash drive. If the flash drive has a volume name, look up the name in /dev/disk/by-label, or use findfs:
    su -c 'findfs LABEL="MyLabel"'
    If the media does not have a volume name, or you do not know it, run dmesg after you connect the USB flash drive. The device name, similar to /dev/sdc, appears in several lines towards the end of the output.
  3. Use the dd command to transfer the ISO image to the USB device:
    dd if=path/image_name.iso of=device
    where path/image_name.iso is the ISO image file of the installation DVD that you downloaded from the Red Hat Customer Portal and device is the USB flash drive. For example:
    dd if=~/Download/RHEL6-Server-i386-DVD.iso of=/dev/sdc

2.3. Making Minimal Boot Media

A piece of minimal boot media is a CD, DVD, or USB flash drive that contains the software to boot the system and launch the installation program, but which does not contain the software that must be transferred to the system to create a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
Use minimal boot media:
  • to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux over a network
  • to boot the system to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a hard drive
  • to use a kickstart file during installation (refer to Section 32.8.1, “Creating Kickstart Boot Media”
  • to commence a network or hard-drive installation or to use an anaconda update or a kickstart file with a DVD installation.
You can use minimal boot media to start the installation process on 32-bit x86 systems, AMD64 or Intel 64 systems, and POWER systems. The process by which you create minimal boot media for systems of these various types is identical except in the case of AMD64 and Intel 64 systems with UEFI firmware interfaces — refer to Section 2.3.1, “UEFI-based systems”.
To make minimal boot media for 32-bit x86 systems, BIOS-based AMD64 or Intel 64 systems, and POWER systems:
  1. Download the ISO image file named boot.iso that is available at the same location as the images of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD — refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  2. Burn boot.iso to a blank CD or DVD using the same procedure detailed in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD” for the installation disc, or transfer the boot.iso file to a USB device with the dd command as detailed in Section 2.2, “Preparing a USB flash drive as an installation source”. As the boot.iso file is only around 200 MB in size, you do not need an especially large USB flash drive.

2.3.1. UEFI-based systems

Red Hat does not provide an image to produce minimal boot CDs or DVDs for UEFI-based systems. Use a USB flash drive (as described in this section) to boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installer, or use the installation DVD with the linux askmethod option to boot the installer from DVD and continue installation from a different installation source — refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an Installation Method”.
Use the efidisk.img file in the images/ directory on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD to produce a bootable USB flash drive for UEFI-based systems.
  1. Download an ISO image file of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation DVD as described in Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
  2. Become root:
    su -
  3. Create a mount point for the ISO image file:
    mkdir /mnt/dvdiso
  4. Mount the image file:
    mount DVD.iso /mnt/dvdiso -o loop
    Where DVD.iso is the name of the ISO image file, for example RHEL6-Server-x86_64-DVD.iso.
  5. Transfer efidisk.img from the ISO image file to your USB flash drive:
    dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/device_name
    For example:
    dd if=/mnt/dvdiso/images/efidisk.img of=/dev/sdc
  6. Unmount the ISO image file:
    umount /mnt/dvdiso

Part I.  x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 — Installation and Booting

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for Intel and AMD 32-bit and 64-bit systems discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.

Table of Contents

3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture
3.1. Upgrade or Install?
3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?
3.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
3.3.1. Hardware RAID
3.3.2. Software RAID
3.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
3.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
3.5. Selecting an Installation Method
3.6. Choose a boot method
4. Preparing for Installation
4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
4.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
5. System Specifications List
6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems
6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
6.3. Performing a driver update during installation
6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
7. Booting the Installer
7.1. Starting the Installation Program
7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
7.1.2. Additional Boot Options
7.2. The Boot Menu
7.3. Installing from a Different Source
7.4. Booting from the Network using PXE
8. Configuring Language and Installation Source
8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
8.2. Language Selection
8.3. Installation Method
8.3.1. Installing from DVD
8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
8.3.4. Installing via NFS
8.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
8.4. Verifying Media
9. Installing using anaconda
9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
9.2.1. Screenshots during installation
9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles
9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
9.4. Keyboard Configuration
9.5. Storage Devices
9.5.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
9.6. Setting the Hostname
9.6.1. Edit Network Connections
9.7. Time Zone Configuration
9.8. Set the Root Password
9.9. Assign Storage Devices
9.10. Initializing the Hard Disk
9.11. Upgrading an Existing System
9.11.1. The Upgrade Dialog
9.11.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
9.11.3. Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration
9.12. Disk Partitioning Setup
9.13. Encrypt Partitions
9.14. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
9.14.1. Create Storage
9.14.2. Adding Partitions
9.14.3. Create Software RAID
9.14.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
9.14.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
9.15. Write changes to disk
9.16. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration
9.16.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration
9.16.2. Rescue Mode
9.16.3. Alternative Boot Loaders
9.17. Package Group Selection
9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
9.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
9.18. Installing Packages
9.19. Installation Complete
10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System
10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?
10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
10.3. Trouble During the Installation
10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
10.3.2. Saving traceback messages
10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
10.3.4. Using Remaining Space
10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems
10.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
10.4. Problems After Installation
10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?
10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?
10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work
10.4.8. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup

Chapter 3. Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture

3.1. Upgrade or Install?

For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.

3.2. Is Your Hardware Compatible?

Hardware compatibility is particularly important if you have an older system or a system that you built yourself. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 should be compatible with most hardware in systems that were factory built within the last two years. However, hardware specifications change almost daily, so it is difficult to guarantee that your hardware is 100% compatible.
The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at:
http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/

3.3.  RAID and Other Disk Devices

Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid are different from their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead. You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.

3.3.1.  Hardware RAID

RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.

3.3.2.  Software RAID

You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays, where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. These functions are explained in detail in Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”.

3.3.3.  FireWire and USB Disks

Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to avoid any confusion.

Post-installation Usage

You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.

3.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?

Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other OSes you may have installed on your system, such as Windows, OS/2, or even a different version of Linux. For x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems, at least two partitions (/ and swap) must be dedicated to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Before you start the installation process, you must
  • have enough unpartitioned[1] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
  • have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes discussed in Section 9.14.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
If you are not sure that you meet these conditions, or if you want to know how to create free disk space for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.

3.5. Selecting an Installation Method

What type of installation method do you wish to use? The following installation methods are available:
DVD
If you have a DVD drive and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD you can use this method. Refer to Section 8.3.1, “Installing from DVD”, for DVD installation instructions.
If you booted the installation from a piece of media other than the installation DVD, you can specify the DVD as the installation source with the linux askmethod or linux repo=cdrom:device:/device boot option, or by selecting Local CD/DVD on the Installation Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Hard Drive
If you have copied the Red Hat Enterprise Linux ISO images to a local hard drive, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod or linux repo=hd:device:/path boot option), or by selecting Hard drive on the Installation Method menu (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.2, “Installing from a Hard Drive”, for hard drive installation instructions.
NFS
If you are installing from an NFS server using ISO images or a mirror image of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod or linux repo=nfs:server :options:/path boot option, or the NFS directory option on the Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.4, “Installing via NFS” for network installation instructions. Note that NFS installations may also be performed in GUI mode.
URL
If you are installing directly from an HTTP (Web) server or FTP server, use this method. You need a boot CD-ROM (use the linux askmethod, linux repo=ftp://user:password@host/path, or linux repo=http://host/path boot option, or the URL option on the Installation Method menu described in Section 8.3, “Installation Method”). Refer to Section 8.3.5, “Installing via FTP or HTTP”, for FTP and HTTP installation instructions.
If you booted the distribution DVD and did not use the alternate installation source option askmethod, the next stage loads automatically from the DVD. Proceed to Section 8.2, “Language Selection”.

DVD Activity

If you boot from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD, the installation program loads its next stage from that disc. This happens regardless of which installation method you choose, unless you eject the disc before you proceed. The installation program still downloads package data from the source you choose.

3.6. Choose a boot method

You can use several methods to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Your BIOS may need to be changed to allow booting from your DVD/CD-ROM drive. For more information about changing your BIOS, refer to Section 7.1.1, “Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems”.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD or USB flash drive. After you boot the system with a piece of minimal boot media, you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on making boot CDs and USB flash drives.
Finally, you can boot the installer overthe network from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server. Again, after you boot the system, you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network.


[1] Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drives you are installing to has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.

Chapter 4. Preparing for Installation

4.1. Preparing for a Network Installation

Note

Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate, network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

Note

The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging server, continue with either Section 4.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.

4.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation

Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared over FTP or HTTP.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.

4.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation

For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
  1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
    mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
  2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  3. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  4. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).
  5. Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in /etc/exports on the network server.
    To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
    /publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
    To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
    /publicly/available/directory * (ro)
  6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
  7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

4.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation

Note — Not all file systems supported

Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk Management tool. To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system, use the fdisk tool.

Cannot Install from LVM Partitions

You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
  • an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the content of a DVD.
  • an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
  • optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 8.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
  1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
    dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
    where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
  2. Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
    The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by USB.
  3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  4. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  5. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

Chapter 5. System Specifications List

The most recent list of supported hardware can be found at http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/.
The installation program automatically detects and installs your computer's hardware. Although you should make sure that your hardware meets the minimum requirements to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux (refer to Section 3.2, “Is Your Hardware Compatible?”) you do not usually need to supply the installation program with any specific details about your system.
However, when performing certain types of installation, some specific details might be useful or even essential.
  • If you plan to use a customized partition layout, record:
    • The model numbers, sizes, types, and interfaces of the hard drives attached to the system. For example, Seagate ST3320613AS 320 GB on SATA0, Western Digital WD7500AAKS 750 GB on SATA1. This will allow you to identify specific hard drives during the partitioning process.
  • If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux as an additional operating system on an existing system, record:
    • The mount points of the existing partitions on the system. For example, /boot on sda1, / on sda2, and /home on sdb1. This will allow you to identify specific partitions during the partitioning process.
  • If you plan to install from an image on a local hard drive:
    • The hard drive and directory that holds the image.
  • If you plan to install from a network location, or install on an iSCSI target:
    • The make and model numbers of the network adapters on your system. For example, Netgear GA311. This will allow you to identify adapters when manually configuring the network.
    • IP, DHCP, and BOOTP addresses
    • Netmask
    • Gateway IP address
    • One or more name server IP addresses (DNS)
    If any of these networking requirements or terms are unfamiliar to you, contact your network administrator for assistance.
  • If you plan to install from a network location:
  • If you plan to install on an iSCSI target:
  • If your computer is part of a domain:
    • You should verify that the domain name will be supplied by the DHCP server. If not, you will need to input the domain name manually during installation.

Chapter 6. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems

In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You can use a driver disc to add this support during installation in one of three ways:
  1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
    1. on a local hard drive
    2. a USB flash drive
  2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
    1. a CD
    2. a DVD
    Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD” for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
  3. create an initial ramdisk update from the image file and store it on a PXE server. This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any other method.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver update during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not intended can complicate support.

6.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation

Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update”.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available. The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk driver update.

6.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation

If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation program, others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk, and one requires you to prepare an initial RAM disk update:
Methods that use the image file itself
  • local hard drive
  • USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
  • CD
  • DVD
Methods that use an initial RAM disk update
  • PXE
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 6.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver update image file”, Section 6.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc” or Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk.

6.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file

6.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage

To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, simply copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the following example, the file is named dd.iso:
Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
File browser window displaying a single file, named dd.iso
Figure 6.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file

Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This differs from driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO image file contains all of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
If you change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV, the installation program will automatically examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by default. Refer to Section 6.3.1, “Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk”.

6.2.2. Preparing a driver disc

You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.

6.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD

These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop

CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the CD or DVD. The steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
  1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
    A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
    The file manager window shows a single image file, named dd.iso.
    Figure 6.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window

  2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
    CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
    CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
    Figure 6.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog

  3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Figure 6.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD

If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a Linux desktop other than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.

6.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update

Advanced procedure

This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the installation process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily behaves as if it were a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To perform a driver update during installation, your computer must be able to boot from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server, and you must have a PXE server available on your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on using PXE during installation.
To make the driver update available on your PXE server:
  1. Place the driver update image file on your PXE server. Usually, you would do this by downloading it to the PXE server from a location on the Internet specified by Red Hat or your hardware vendor. Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
  2. Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
  3. Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
  4. At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the following command, and press Enter:
    find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
    
  5. Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that you want to use for installation. This directory is placed under the /tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For example, /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Client.
  6. Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an entry that includes the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
    label target-dd
    kernel target/vmlinuz
    append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
    
    Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 6.3.4, “Select a PXE target that includes a driver update” to learn how to use an initial RAM disk update during installation.
Example 6.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded from the Internet to a directory on your PXE server. The target that you want to PXE boot from is located in /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following commands:
$ cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
$ cd /tmp/initrd_update
$ find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
$ cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/dd.img
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the following entry:
label r6c-dd
kernel r6c/vmlinuz
append initrd=r6c/initrd.img,r6c/dd.img

6.3. Performing a driver update during installation

You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
  • let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
  • let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
  • use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
  • select a PXE target that includes a driver update.

6.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk

Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. The installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will not prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 6.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local storage” to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.

6.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update

  1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
    The no driver found dialog
    The dialog reports that the installer did not find the devices needed for this installation type, and asks you to select a driver, use a driver disk, or go back.
    Figure 6.5. The no driver found dialog

6.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk

Choose this method only for completely new drivers

This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
  1. Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. The installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
    The driver disk prompt
    The driver disk prompt
    Figure 6.6. The driver disk prompt

  2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. The installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
    If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 6.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk” .

6.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update

  1. Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. The procedure to specify this option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware documentation or the hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
  2. In the preexecution boot environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you prepared on your PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment r6c-dd in the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE server, type r6c-dd at the prompt and press Enter.
Refer to Section 6.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation. Note that this is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.

6.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk

If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
Selecting a driver disk source
The screen shows three devices that could hold a driver update
Figure 6.7. Selecting a driver disk source

If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
Selecting a driver disk partition
The screen prompts you to select a partition. In this example, there is only one to choose from, /dev/sda1.
Figure 6.8. Selecting a driver disk partition

The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Selecting an ISO image
The screen prompts you to choose a file. In this example, the driver update image is dd.iso
Figure 6.9. Selecting an ISO image

Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area (located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you would like to use additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removeable media, you can now safely eject or disconnect the disk or device. The installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use the media for other purposes.

Chapter 7. Booting the Installer

Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.

Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64

Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. Therefore, the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be available. The UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
To start the installation program from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or from minimal boot media, follow this procedure:
  1. Disconnect any external FireWire or USB disks that you do not need for installation. Refer to Section 3.3.3, “ FireWire and USB Disks ” for more information.
  2. Power on your computer system.
  3. Insert the media in your computer.
  4. Power off your computer with the boot media still inside.
  5. Power on your computer system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer. Typically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at the DVD drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came with your system.

Note — Aborting the Installation

To abort the installation, either press Ctrl +Alt+Del or power off your computer with the power switch. You may abort the installation process without consequence at any time prior to selecting Write changes to disk on the Write partitioning to disk screen. Red Hat Enterprise Linux makes no permanent changes to your computer until that point. Please be aware that stopping the installation after partitioning has begun can leave your computer unusable.

7.1. Starting the Installation Program

Important — UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support UEFI for 32-bit x86 systems.

Important — UEFI for AMD64 and Intel 64

Note that the boot configurations of UEFI and BIOS differ significantly from each other. Therefore, the installed system must boot using the same firmware that was used during installation. You cannot install the operating system on a system that uses BIOS and then boot this installation on a system that uses UEFI.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports version 2.2 of the UEFI specification. Hardware that supports version 2.3 of the UEFI specification or later should boot and operate with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, but the additional functionality defined by these later specifications will not be available. The UEFI specifications are available from http://www.uefi.org/specs/agreement/
To start, first make sure that you have all necessary resources for the installation. If you have already read through Chapter 3, Planning for Installation on the x86 Architecture, and followed the instructions, you should be ready to start the installation process. When you have verified that you are ready to begin, boot the installation program using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD or any boot media that you have created.

Note

Occasionally, some hardware components require a driver update during the installation. A driver update adds support for hardware that is not otherwise supported by the installation program. Refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems for more information.

7.1.1. Booting the Installation Program on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems

You can boot the installation program using any one of the following media (depending upon what your system can support):
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD — Your machine supports a bootable DVD drive and you have the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD.
  • Boot CD-ROM — Your machine supports a bootable CD-ROM drive and you want to perform network or hard drive installation.
  • USB flash drive — Your machine supports booting from a USB device.
  • PXE boot via network — Your machine supports booting from the network. This is an advanced installation path. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for additional information on this method.
To create a boot CD-ROM or to prepare your USB flash drive for booting or installation, refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media”.
Insert the boot media and reboot the system.
You might need to press a specific key or combination of keys to boot from the media. On most computers, a message appears briefly on the screen very soon after you turn on the computer. Typically, it is worded something like Press F10 to select boot device, although the specific wording and the key that you must press varies widely from computer to computer. Consult the documentation for your computer or motherboard, or seek support from the hardware manufacturer or vendor.
If your computer does not allow you to select a boot device as it starts up, you might need to configure your system's Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to boot from the media.
To change your BIOS settings on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, watch the instructions provided on your display when your computer first boots. A line of text appears, telling you which key to press to enter the BIOS settings.
Once you have entered your BIOS setup program, find the section where you can alter your boot sequence. The default is often C, A or A, C (depending on whether you boot from your hard drive [C] or a diskette drive [A]). Change this sequence so that the DVD is first in your boot order and that C or A (whichever is your typical boot default) is second. This instructs the computer to first look at the DVD drive for bootable media; if it does not find bootable media on the DVD drive, it then checks your hard drive or diskette drive.
Save your changes before exiting the BIOS. For more information, refer to the documentation that came with your system.
After a short delay, a screen containing the boot: prompt should appear. The screen contains information on a variety of boot options. Each boot option also has one or more help screens associated with it. To access a help screen, press the appropriate function key as listed in the line at the bottom of the screen.
As you boot the installation program, be aware of two issues:
  • Once the boot: prompt appears, the installation program automatically begins if you take no action within the first minute. To disable this feature, press one of the help screen function keys.
  • If you press a help screen function key, there is a slight delay while the help screen is read from the boot media.
Normally, you only need to press Enter to boot. Be sure to watch the boot messages to review if the Linux kernel detects your hardware. If your hardware is properly detected, continue to the next section. If it does not properly detect your hardware, you may need to restart the installation and use one of the boot options provided in Chapter 28, Boot Options.

7.1.2. Additional Boot Options

While it is easiest to boot using a DVD and perform a graphical installation, sometimes there are installation scenarios where booting in a different manner may be needed. This section discusses additional boot options available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To pass options to the boot loader on an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, use the instructions as provided in the boot loader option samples below.

Note

Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for additional boot options not covered in this section.
  • To perform a text mode installation, at the installation boot prompt, type:
    linux text
  • To specify an installation source, use the linux repo= option. For example:
    linux repo=cdrom:device
    linux repo=ftp://username:password@URL
    linux repo=http://URL
    linux repo=hd:device
    linux repo=nfs:options:server:/path
    linux repo=nfsiso:options:server:/path
    In these examples, cdrom refers to a CD or DVD drive, ftp refers to a location accessible by FTP, http refers to a location accessible by HTTP, hd refers to an ISO image file accessible on a hard drive partition, nfs refers to an expanded tree of installation files accessible by NFS, and nfsiso refers to an ISO image file accessible by NFS.
  • ISO images have an SHA256 checksum embedded in them. To test the checksum integrity of an ISO image, at the installation boot prompt, type:
    linux mediacheck
    The installation program prompts you to insert a DVD or select an ISO image to test, and select OK to perform the checksum operation. This checksum operation can be performed on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD. It is strongly recommended to perform this operation on any Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD that was created from downloaded ISO images. This command works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods.
  • If you need to perform the installation in serial mode, type the following command:
    linux console=<device>
    For text mode installations, use:
    linux text console=<device>
    In the above command, <device> should be the device you are using (such as ttyS0 or ttyS1). For example, linux text console=ttyS0.
    Text mode installations using a serial terminal work best when the terminal supports UTF-8. Under UNIX and Linux, Kermit supports UTF-8. For Windows, Kermit '95 works well. Non-UTF-8 capable terminals works as long as only English is used during the installation process. An enhanced serial display can be used by passing the utf8 command as a boot-time option to the installation program. For example:
    linux console=ttyS0 utf8

7.1.2.1. Kernel Options

Options can also be passed to the kernel. For example, to apply updates for the anaconda installation program from a USB storage device enter:
linux updates
For text mode installations, use:
linux text updates
This command results in a prompt for the path to the device that contains updates for anaconda. It is not needed if you are performing a network installation and have already placed the updates image contents in rhupdates/ on the server.
After entering any options, press Enter to boot using those options.
If you need to specify boot options to identify your hardware, please write them down. The boot options are needed during the boot loader configuration portion of the installation (refer to Section 9.16, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration” for more information).
For more information on kernel options refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.

7.2. The Boot Menu

The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds, the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard, and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a particular option, press the Tab key.
The boot screen
The boot screen
Figure 7.1. The boot screen

For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
This option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto your computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
This option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the installation program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen appears distorted or goes blank when using the the Install or upgrade an existing system option, restart your computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an exceptionally stable computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent booting. The rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of these problems.
Boot from local drive
This option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc accidentally, use this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installer.

7.3.  Installing from a Different Source

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network using NFS, FTP, or HTTP methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to use with each:
Table 7.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method Installation source
Installation DVD DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive USB flash drive, installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD Network or hard disk

Refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations other than the media with which you booted the system.

7.4.  Booting from the Network using PXE

To boot with PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that supports PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and may be labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
  1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
  2. Switch on the computer.
  3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more information.

Note — Multiple NICs and PXE installation

Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the first network interface as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the installer to try to use a different network interface from the one that was used by PXE. To change this behavior, use the following in pxelinux.cfg/* config files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
These configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network interface the firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following option:
ksdevice=link
This option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is linked to a network switch.

Chapter 8. Configuring Language and Installation Source

Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation source.

8.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

Important — Graphical installation recommended

We recommed that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, and Figure 8.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.

Note

Not every language supported in graphical installation mode is also supported in text mode. Specifically, languages written with a character set other than the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets are not available in text mode. If you choose a language written with a character set that is not supported in text mode, the installation program will present you with the English versions of the screens.
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Figure 8.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup

Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Figure 8.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language

The widgets include:
  • Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
  • Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
  • Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that line.
  • Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
  • Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a file.
  • Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
  • Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 8.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 8.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, shows the cursor on the Edit button.

8.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate

Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the OK button.

Warning

Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).

8.2. Language Selection

Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer to Figure 8.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 9.17.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Language Selection
Language selection screen.
Figure 8.3. Language Selection

Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.

8.3. Installation Method

If you booted the installation from minimal boot media or with the askmethod boot option, use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 8.4, “Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Installation Method
Installation method screen.
Figure 8.4. Installation Method

8.3.1. Installing from DVD

To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from DVD media.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.

Note

To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen. Refer to Section 9.15, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 9.3, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).

8.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive

The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Selecting partition dialog for a hard drive installation.
Figure 8.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation

Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SATA, SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
Table 8.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type Volume Original path to files Directory to use
VFAT D:\ D:\Downloads\RHEL6 /Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4 /home /home/user1/RHEL6 /user1/RHEL6

If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.

Use a leading slash

An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 9, Installing using anaconda.

8.3.3. Performing a Network Installation

The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions. For instance, if you boot the installer with the askmethod or repo= options, you can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a network server using FTP, HTTP, or NFS protocols. You can also instruct the installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.
If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually.
By default, the installation program uses DHCP to automatically provide network settings. If you use a cable or DSL modem, router, firewall, or other network hardware to communicate with the Internet, DHCP is a suitable option. If your network has no DHCP server, clear the check box labeled Use dynamic IP configuration (DHCP).
Enter the IP address you are using during installation and press Enter.
The installation program supports the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.
TCP/IP Configuration
Configure the network device address(es) for installation.
Figure 8.6. TCP/IP Configuration

When the installation process completes, it will transfer these settings to your system.

8.3.4. Installing via NFS

The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 4.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
NFS Setup Dialog
NFS setup dialog.
Figure 8.7. NFS Setup Dialog

If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.

8.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP

Important — you must specify the protocol

When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/i386/
URL Setup Dialog
URL setup dialog.
Figure 8.8. URL Setup Dialog

8.4. Verifying Media

The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.

Chapter 9. Installing using anaconda

This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.

9.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

Important — Graphical Interface on the Installed System

Installing in text mode does not prevent you from using a graphical interface on your system once it is installed.
Apart from the graphical installer, anaconda also includes a text-based installer.
If one of the following situations occurs, the installation program uses text mode:
  • The installation system fails to identify the display hardware on your computer
  • You choose the text mode installation from the boot menu
While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and include:
  • configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
  • customizing the partition layout
  • customizing the bootloader layout
  • selecting packages during installation
  • configuring the installed system with Firstboot
If you choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can still configure your system to use a graphical interface after installation. Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for instructions.

9.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface

If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.

Note

If you are using an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system, and you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, use the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 7.2, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot menu and to Section 8.1, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions and obtain all needed information.

9.2.1. Screenshots during installation

Anaconda allows you to take screenshots during the installation process. At any time during installation, press Shift+Print Screen and anaconda will save a screenshot to /root/anaconda-screenshots.
If you are performing a Kickstart installation, use the autostep --autoscreenshot option to generate a screenshot of each step of the installation automatically. Refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File” for details of configuring a Kickstart file.

9.2.2. A Note about Virtual Consoles

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer to Table 9.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Table 9.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console keystrokes contents
1 ctrl+alt+f1 graphical display
2 ctrl+alt+f2 shell prompt
3 ctrl+alt+f3 install log (messages from installation program)
4 ctrl+alt+f4 system-related messages
5 ctrl+alt+f5 other messages

9.3. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux

The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input.
Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Click on the Next button to continue.

9.4. Keyboard Configuration

Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to the figure below).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Keyboard Configuration
Keyboard configuration screen
Figure 9.1. Keyboard Configuration

Red Hat Enterprise Linux includes support for more than one keyboard layout for many languages. In particular, most European languages include a latin1 option, which uses dead keys to access certain characters, such as those with diacritical marks. When you press a dead key, nothing will appear on your screen until you press another key to "complete" the character. For example, to type é on a latin1 keyboard layout, you would press (and release) the ' key, and then press the E key. By contrast, you access this character on some other keyboards by pressing and holding down a key (such as Alt-Gr) while you press the E key. Other keyboards might have a dedicated key for this character.

Note

To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.

9.5. Storage Devices

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen allows you to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
Storage devices
Screen to select basic or specialized storage devices
Figure 9.2. Storage devices

Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage devices:
  • hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage devices:
  • Storage area networks (SANs)
  • Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
  • Firmware RAID devices
  • Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 9.6, “Setting the Hostname”.

9.5.1.  The Storage Devices Selection Screen

The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Select storage devices — Basic devices
The Basic Devices tab
Figure 9.3. Select storage devices — Basic devices

Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
The Multipath Devices tab
Figure 9.4. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices

Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
The Other SAN Devices tab
Figure 9.5. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices

Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to Section 9.5.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select between searching by port, target, and LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values) and searching by WWID (with a corresponding text box for this value).
Figure 9.6. The Storage Devices Search Tab

The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Selecting Columns
The drop-down menu in its expanded state
Figure 9.7. Selecting Columns

Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.

Important — chain loading

Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. To chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and proceed to Section 9.10, “Initializing the Hard Disk”

9.5.1.1.  Advanced Storage Options

From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Advanced Storage Options
Advanced Storage Options.
Figure 9.8. Advanced Storage Options

9.5.1.1.1. Enable Network Interfaces
Use this dialog to configure the network interfaces through which the system will connect to networked storage devices.
Enable Network Interface
Enable Network Interface
Figure 9.9. Enable Network Interface

If your network does not have DHCP enabled, or if you need to override the DHCP settings, select the network interface that you plan to use from the Interfaces menu. Clear the checkbox for Use dynamic IP configuration (DHCP). You can now enter an IPv4 address and netmask for this system in the form address / netmask, along with the gateway address and nameserver address for your network.
Click OK to accept these settings and continue.
9.5.1.1.2.  Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password. If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using this information.
Configure ISCSI Parameters
Configure ISCSI Parameters.
Figure 9.10. Configure ISCSI Parameters

Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly, but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
9.5.1.1.3.  Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
Configure FCoE Parameters
Configure FCoE Parameters
Figure 9.11. Configure FCoE Parameters

Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.

9.6. Setting the Hostname

Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name only.

Valid Hostnames

You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Setting the hostname
Setting the hostname
Figure 9.12. Setting the hostname

If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.

Modem Configuration

The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).

9.6.1. Edit Network Connections

Important — Manual configuration is often needed

When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example, when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access when the system boots for the first time.

Note

To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband, VPN, and DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section only details the most typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must configure are necessarily different.
Network Connections
Configuring network connections.
Figure 9.13. Network Connections

To add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. To add a new connection of that type, click Add. To modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below. To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that re-configuring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.

9.6.1.1. Options common to all types of connection

Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.

9.6.1.2. The Wired tab

Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the interface.
The Wired tab
The Wired tab
Figure 9.14. The Wired tab

9.6.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab

Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
  • TLS for Transport Layer Security
  • Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
  • Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to make the password visible as you type it.
The 802.1x Security tab
The 802.1x Security tab
Figure 9.15. The 802.1x Security tab

9.6.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab

Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
The IPv4 Settings tab
The IPv4 Settings tab
Figure 9.16. The IPv4 Settings tab

9.6.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Figure 9.17. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

9.6.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab

Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
The IPv6 Settings tab
The IPv6 Settings tab
Figure 9.18. The IPv6 Settings tab

9.6.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Figure 9.19. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

9.7. Time Zone Configuration

Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
  • Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
  • You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Configuring the Time Zone
Time zone configuration screen.
Figure 9.20. Configuring the Time Zone

If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.

Windows and the System Clock

Do not enable the System clock uses UTC option if your machine also runs Microsoft Windows. Microsoft operating systems change the BIOS clock to match local time rather than UTC. This may cause unexpected behavior under Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Note

To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig.

9.8. Set the Root Password

Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.

Note

The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Root Password
Setting your root password.
Figure 9.21. Root Password

Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.

Note

To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[2] for your system. You cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.

Note

Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.

9.9.  Assign Storage Devices

If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to Section 9.5, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Assign storage devices
Screen to select storage devices for installation or for data storage only
Figure 9.22. Assign storage devices

The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.

Important — chain loading

If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader, include that storage device among the Install Target Devices. Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen are not automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option on the partioning screen (refer to Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.

9.10. Initializing the Hard Disk

If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to all devices.
Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Warning screen – initializing hard drive.
Figure 9.23. Warning screen – initializing hard drive

Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)

Detach Unneeded Disks

If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.

9.11.  Upgrading an Existing System

Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions

Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you need to upgrade your computer.

9.11.1.  The Upgrade Dialog

If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
The Upgrade Dialog
The Upgrade Dialog
Figure 9.24. The Upgrade Dialog

Manually Installed Software

Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.

9.11.2.  Upgrading Using the Installer

Installations are Recommended

In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc' 
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.

Storing Backups

Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an Upgrade”.

9.11.3.  Upgrading Boot Loader Configuration

Your completed Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation must be registered in the boot loader to boot properly. A boot loader is software on your machine that locates and starts the operating system. Refer to Appendix E, The GRUB Boot Loader for more information about boot loaders.
The Upgrade Boot Loader Dialog
The dialog includes three radio buttons, labeled Update boot loader configuration, Skip boot loader updating, and Create new boot loader configuration
Figure 9.25. The Upgrade Boot Loader Dialog

If the existing boot loader was installed by a Linux distribution, the installation system can modify it to load the new Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. To update the existing Linux boot loader, select Update boot loader configuration. This is the default behavior when you upgrade an existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation.
GRUB is the standard boot loader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures. If your machine uses another boot loader, such as BootMagic, System Commander, or the loader installed by Microsoft Windows, then the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system cannot update it. In this case, select Skip boot loader updating. When the installation process completes, refer to the documentation for your product for assistance.
Install a new boot loader as part of an upgrade process only if you are certain you want to replace the existing boot loader. If you install a new boot loader, you may not be able to boot other operating systems on the same machine until you have configured the new boot loader. Select Create new boot loader configuration to remove the existing boot loader and install GRUB.
After you make your selection, click Next to continue. If you selected the Create new boot loader configuration option, refer to Section 9.16, “x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration”. If you chose to update or skip boot loader configuration, installation continues without further input from you.

9.12. Disk Partitioning Setup

Warning — Back up your data

It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.

Important — Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.

Important — Booting from RAIDs

If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
Disk Partitioning Setup
Choose automatic partitioning or manual partitioning.
Figure 9.26. Disk Partitioning Setup

On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).

Warning

If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

Warning

If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 3.4, “Do You Have Enough Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.

Important — chain loading

To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader, you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options, you must now select the Review and modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.

9.13.  Encrypt Partitions

If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for more information.
Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
The dialog contains text boxes to enter a passphrase and to confirm it.
Figure 9.27.  Enter passphrase for encrypted partition

Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.

Warning — Do not lose this passphrase

If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases”.

9.14.  Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout

If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. You may also need to create and/or delete partitions at this time.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 9.14.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Partitioning on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems
The main partitioning screen.
Figure 9.28. Partitioning on x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Systems

The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as /dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 9.9, “ Assign Storage Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen

9.14.1.  Create Storage

The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Creating Storage
Creating new storage
Figure 9.29. Creating Storage

Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Create Software RAID
  • RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
  • RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
  • RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device. This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
  • LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
  • LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
  • LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.

9.14.2. Adding Partitions

To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 9.30, “Creating a New Partition”).

Note

You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Creating a New Partition
Creating a new partition.
Figure 9.30. Creating a New Partition

  • Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
  • File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.14.2.1, “File System Types”.
  • Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should go.
  • Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
  • Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
    If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
  • Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
  • Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
  • OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
  • Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.

9.14.2.1. File System Types

Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
  • standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
  • swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
  • software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
  • physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
  • ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
  • ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [3] the file system.
  • ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
  • xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized while mounted and active.
  • vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
  • Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
    Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

    Btrfs is still experimental

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.

9.14.3.  Create Software RAID

Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
Create a software RAID partition
The create a software RAID partition dialog.
Figure 9.31. Create a software RAID partition

RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Create a RAID device
The create a RAID device dialog.
Figure 9.32. Create a RAID device

Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
  • RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
  • RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or more disks are attached to the system.
Clone a RAID device
The clone a RAID device dialog.
Figure 9.33. Clone a RAID device

9.14.4.  Create LVM Logical Volume

Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations

LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm command. To return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
Create an LVM Physical Volume
The Create an LVM Physical Volume dialog.
Figure 9.34. Create an LVM Physical Volume

Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Make LVM Volume Group
The Make LVM Volume Group dialog.
Figure 9.35. Make LVM Volume Group

To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Make Logical Volume
The Make Logical Volume dialog.
Figure 9.36. Make Logical Volume

9.14.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme

9.14.5.1. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems

Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions for x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 systems:
  • A swap partition
  • A /boot partition
  • A / partition
  • A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.
    In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function of the memory workload running on that system. However, given that swap space is usually designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table.
    Table 9.2. Recommended System Swap Space
    Amount of RAM in the System Recommended Amount of Swap Space
    4GB of RAM or less a minimum of 2GB of swap space
    4GB to 16GB of RAM a minimum of 4GB of swap space
    16GB to 64GB of RAM a minimum of 8GB of swap space
    64GB to 256GB of RAM a minimum of 16GB of swap space
    256GB to 512GB of RAM a minimum of 32GB of swap space

    Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
  • A /boot/ partition (250 MB)
    The partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.

    Important — Supported file systems

    The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs, XFS, or VFAT.

    Note

    If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders (and your system was manufactured more than two years ago), you may need to create a /boot/ partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.

    Note

    If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
  • A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
    This is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
    A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.

    Root and /root

    The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The /root directory/root (sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for system administration.
Many systems have more partitions than the minimum listed above. Choose partitions based on your particular system needs. For example, consider creating a separate /home partition on systems that store user data. Refer to Section 9.14.5.1.1, “Advice on Partitions” for more information.
If you create many partitions instead of one large / partition, upgrades become easier. Refer to the description of the Edit option in Section 9.14, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ” for more information.
The following table summarizes minimum partition sizes for the partitions containing the listed directories. You do not have to make a separate partition for each of these directories. For instance, if the partition containing /foo must be at least 500 MB, and you do not make a separate /foo partition, then the / (root) partition must be at least 500 MB.
Table 9.3. Minimum partition sizes
Directory Minimum size
/ 250 MB
/usr 250 MB, but avoid placing this on a separate partition
/tmp 50 MB
/var 384 MB
/home 100 MB
/boot 250 MB

Leave Excess Capacity Unallocated

Only assign storage capacity to those partitions you require immediately. You may allocate free space at any time, to meet needs as they occur. To learn about a more flexible method for storage management, refer to Appendix D, Understanding LVM.
If you are not sure how best to configure the partitions for your computer, accept the default partition layout.
9.14.5.1.1. Advice on Partitions
Optimal partition setup depends on the usage for the Linux system in question. The following tips may help you decide how to allocate your disk space.
  • If you expect that you or other users will store data on the system, create a separate partition for the /home directory within a volume group. With a separate /home partition, you may upgrade or reinstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux without erasing user data files.
  • Consider encrypting any partitions that might contain sensitive data. Encryption prevents unauthorized people from accessing the data on the partitions, even if they have access to the physical storage device. In most cases, you should at least encrypt the /home partition.
  • Each kernel installed on your system requires approximately 10 MB on the /boot partition. Unless you plan to install a great many kernels, the default partition size of 250 MB for /boot should suffice.

    Important — Supported file systems

    The GRUB bootloader in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only the ext2, ext3, and ext4 (recommended) file systems. You cannot use any other file system for /boot, such as Btrfs, XFS, or VFAT.
  • The /var directory holds content for a number of applications, including the Apache web server. It also is used to store downloaded update packages on a temporary basis. Ensure that the partition containing the /var directory has enough space to download pending updates and hold your other content.

    Warning

    The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.
  • The /usr directory holds the majority of software content on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. For an installation of the default set of software, allocate at least 4 GB of space. If you are a software developer or plan to use your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system to learn software development skills, you may want to at least double this allocation.

    Do not place /usr on a separate partition

    If /usr is on a separate partition from /, the boot process becomes much more complex, and in some situations (like installations on iSCSI drives), might not work at all.
  • Consider leaving a portion of the space in an LVM volume group unallocated. This unallocated space gives you flexibility if your space requirements change but you do not wish to remove data from other partitions to reallocate storage.
  • If you separate subdirectories into partitions, you can retain content in those subdirectories if you decide to install a new version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux over your current system. For instance, if you intend to run a MySQL database in /var/lib/mysql, make a separate partition for that directory in case you need to reinstall later.
The following table is a possible partition setup for a system with a single, new 80 GB hard disk and 1 GB of RAM. Note that approximately 10 GB of the volume group is unallocated to allow for future growth.

Example Usage

This setup is not optimal for all use cases.
Example 9.1. Example partition setup
Table 9.4. Example partition setup
Partition Size and type
/boot 250 MB ext3 partition
swap 2 GB swap
LVM physical volume Remaining space, as one LVM volume group

The physical volume is assigned to the default volume group and divided into the following logical volumes:
Table 9.5. Example partition setup: LVM physical volume
Partition Size and type
/ 13 GB ext4
/var 4 GB ext4
/home 50 GB ext4


9.15. Write changes to disk

The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Writing storage configuration to disk
The Writing storage configuration to disk dialog box lets you choose to Write changes to disk or to Go back.
Figure 9.37. Writing storage configuration to disk

If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.

Last chance to cancel safely

Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer. To switch off most computers at this stage, press the power button and hold it down for a few seconds.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.

9.16. x86, AMD64, and Intel 64 Boot Loader Configuration

To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader. A boot loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating system.

Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, the installer configures the bootloader automatically and you cannot customize bootloader settings during the installation process.
GRUB (GRand Unified Bootloader), which is installed by default, is a very powerful boot loader. GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading (the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as Windows, by loading another boot loader). Note that the version of GRUB in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 is an old and stable version now known as "GRUB Legacy" since upstream development moved to GRUB 2.[4] Red Hat remains committed to maintaining the version of GRUB that we ship with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, just as we do with all packages that we ship.

The GRUB boot menu

The GRUB menu defaults to being hidden, except on dual-boot systems. To show the GRUB menu during system boot, press and hold the Shift key before the kernel is loaded. (Any other key works as well but the Shift key is the safest to use.)
Boot Loader Configuration
Configure how you would like to boot the system.
Figure 9.38. Boot Loader Configuration

If there are no other operating systems on your computer, or you are completely removing any other operating systems the installation program will install GRUB as your boot loader without any intervention. In that case you may continue on to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”.
You may have a boot loader installed on your system already. An operating system may install its own preferred boot loader, or you may have installed a third-party boot loader.If your boot loader does not recognize Linux partitions, you may not be able to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Use GRUB as your boot loader to boot Linux and most other operating systems. Follow the directions in this chapter to install GRUB.

Installing GRUB

If you install GRUB, it may overwrite your existing boot loader.
By default, the installation program installs GRUB in the master boot record or MBR, of the device for the root file system. To decline installation of a new boot loader, unselect Install boot loader on /dev/sda.

Warning

If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly, and you must use another boot method (such as a commercial boot loader application). Use this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system!
If you have other operating systems already installed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux attempts to automatically detect and configure GRUB to boot them. You may manually configure any additional operating systems if GRUB does not detect them.
To add, remove, or change the detected operating system settings, use the options provided.
Add
Select Add to include an additional operating system in GRUB.
Select the disk partition which contains the bootable operating system from the drop-down list and give the entry a label. GRUB displays this label in its boot menu.
Edit
To change an entry in the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Edit.
Delete
To remove an entry from the GRUB boot menu, select the entry and then select Delete.
Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You cannot move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image.

Note

The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in order to boot the desired operating system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your server is available.
If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can compromise your system security. With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. However, it is still possible for someone with physical access to the machine to boot from a diskette, CD-ROM, DVD, or USB media if the BIOS supports it. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot methods.

GRUB Passwords Not Required

You may not require a GRUB password if your system only has trusted operators, or is physically secured with controlled console access. However, if an untrusted person can get physical access to your computer's keyboard and monitor, that person can reboot the system and access GRUB. A password is helpful in this case.
If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.
Once selected, enter a password and confirm it.
GRUB stores the password in encrypted form, so it cannot be read or recovered. If you forget the boot password, boot the system normally and then change the password entry in the /boot/grub/grub.conf file. If you cannot boot, you may be able to use the "rescue" mode on the first Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation disc to reset the GRUB password.
If you do need to change the GRUB password, use the grub-md5-crypt utility. For information on using this utility, use the command man grub-md5-crypt in a terminal window to read the manual pages.

GRUB recognizes only the QWERTY keyboard layout

When selecting a GRUB password, be aware that GRUB recognizes only the QWERTY keyboard layout, regardless of the keyboard actually attached to the system. If you use a keyboard with a significantly different layout, it might be more effective to memorize a pattern of keystrokes rather than the word that the pattern produces.
To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next.

9.16.1. Advanced Boot Loader Configuration

Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:
  • The master boot record (MBR) — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process. If you install it in the MBR, when your machine boots, GRUB presents a boot prompt. You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot.
  • The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first. You can then configure that boot loader to start GRUB, which then boots Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

    GRUB as a Secondary Boot Loader

    If you install GRUB as a secondary boot loader, you must reconfigure your primary boot loader whenever you install and boot from a new kernel. The kernel of an operating system such as Microsoft Windows does not boot in the same fashion. Most users therefore use GRUB as the primary boot loader on dual-boot systems.
Boot Loader Installation
Choose where to install a boot loader and how to configure it.
Figure 9.39. Boot Loader Installation

Note

If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the boot loader should not be installed on the MBR of the RAID array. Rather, the boot loader should be installed on the MBR of the same drive as the /boot/ partition was created.
If your system only uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you should choose the MBR.
Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS does not return the correct drive order. Changing the drive order may be useful if you have multiple SCSI adapters, or both SCSI and IDE adapters, and you want to boot from the SCSI device.

Note

While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access more than the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. If this is the case, leave enough room for the /boot Linux partition on the first 1024 cylinders of your hard drive to boot Linux. The other Linux partitions can be after cylinder 1024.
In parted, 1024 cylinders equals 528MB. For more information, refer to:
http://www.pcguide.com/ref/hdd/bios/sizeMB504-c.html

9.16.2. Rescue Mode

Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive. There may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive. Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use rescue mode, try the following method:
  • Boot an x86, AMD64, or Intel 64 system from any installation medium, such as CD, DVD, USB, or PXE, and type linux rescue at the installation boot prompt. Refer to Chapter 36, Basic System Recovery for a more complete description of rescue mode.
For additional information, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.

9.16.3. Alternative Boot Loaders

GRUB is the default bootloader for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but is not the only choice. A variety of open-source and proprietary alternatives to GRUB are available to load Red Hat Enterprise Linux, including LILO, SYSLINUX, and Acronis Disk Director Suite.

Important

Red Hat does not support third-party boot loaders.

9.17. Package Group Selection

Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.

Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation, then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
Package Group Selection
Choose which package groups you want to install.
Figure 9.40. Package Group Selection

By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 9.18, “Installing Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 9.40, “Package Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.

9.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories

You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
  • The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global file system (GFS).
  • The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
  • The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual Server (LVS).
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Adding a software repository
Enter the details of additional software repositories.
Figure 9.41. Adding a software repository

To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify repository.

Network Access Required

If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.

Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata

If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel only a single repository once entered.

9.17.2.  Customizing the Software Selection

Additional Language Support

Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the Languages category.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select Next.
Package Group Details
Choose to add or remove optional packages from this package group.
Figure 9.42. Package Group Details

Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Package Selection List Context Menu
The Context Menu allows presents you with options to select or deselect packages, and to select or deselect all optional packages in a group.
Figure 9.43. Package Selection List Context Menu

After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the main menu, select SystemAdministrationAdd/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.

9.17.2.1.  Core Network Services

All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
  • centralized logging through syslog
  • email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
  • remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
  • resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
  • network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
  • printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
  • remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.

9.18. Installing Packages

At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Starting installation
The starting installation progress bar
Figure 9.44. Starting installation

Red Hat Enterprise Linux reports the installation progress on the screen as it writes the selected packages to your system.
Packages completed
The Packages Completed progress bar
Figure 9.45. Packages completed

For your reference, a complete log of your installation can be found in /root/install.log once you reboot your system.
After installation completes, select Reboot to restart your computer. Red Hat Enterprise Linux ejects any loaded discs before the computer reboots.

9.19. Installation Complete

Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level), the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.


[2] A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.

[3] The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems.

Chapter 10. Troubleshooting Installation on an Intel or AMD System

This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacdump.txt.
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a permanent copy, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other way round).

10.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux

10.1.1. Are You Unable to Boot With Your RAID Card?

If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall and create your partitions differently.
Some BIOSes do not support booting from RAID cards. At the end of an installation, a text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt (for example, GRUB: ) and a flashing cursor may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system.
Whether you choose automatic or manual partitioning, you must install your /boot partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
You must also install your preferred boot loader (GRUB or LILO) on the MBR of a drive that is outside of the RAID array. This should be the same drive that hosts the /boot/ partition.
Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system properly.

10.1.2. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?

A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
	linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
	http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/

10.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation

10.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation

There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to use only a basic video driver during installation. You can do this either by selecting Install system with basic video driver on the boot menu, or using the xdriver=vesa boot option at the boot prompt. Alternatively, you can force the installer to use a specific screen resolution with the resolution= boot option. This option may be most helpful for laptop users. Another solution to try is the driver= option to specify the driver that should be loaded for your video card. If this works, you should report it as a bug, because the installer failed to detect your video card automatically. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more information on boot options.

Note

To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.

10.3. Trouble During the Installation

10.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message

If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver update is available that fixes your problem. For more general information on driver updates, refer to Chapter 6, Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:

10.3.2. Saving traceback messages

If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash reporting dialog box:
The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
An unhandled exception has occurred. This is most likely a bug. Please save a copy of the detailed exception and file a bug report against anaconda at https://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Figure 10.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box

Details
shows you the details of the error:
Details of the Crash
Details of the crash, showing the python traceback
Figure 10.2. Details of the Crash

Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit installer
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Local disk
saves details of the error to the local hard drive, in a directory that you select with the file browser:
Save Crash Report to a Local disk
Local disk selected, displaying user's home directory
Figure 10.3. Save Crash Report to a Local disk

Bugzilla
submits details of the error to Red Hat's bug-tracking system, Bugzilla. You must supply an existing Bugzilla username and password, and a description of the bug.
Save Crash Report to Bugzilla
Bugzilla selected, displaying fields for username, password, and description
Figure 10.4. Save Crash Report to Bugzilla

Remote server
saves details of the error to a remote location using SCP. You must specify the username, password, host, and destination file.
Save Crash Report to Remote Server
Remote server selected, displaying fields for username, password, host, and destination file
Figure 10.5. Save Crash Report to Remote Server

10.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables

If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”) phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to be lost (assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began) that could not be recovered.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems should always be made.

10.3.4. Using Remaining Space

You have a swap and a / (root) partition created, and you have selected the root partition to use the remaining space, but it does not fill the hard drive.
If your hard drive is more than 1024 cylinders, you must create a /boot partition if you want the / (root) partition to use all of the remaining space on your hard drive.

10.3.5. Other Partitioning Problems

If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
  • A / (root) partition
  • A <swap> partition of type swap

Note

When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically assigns the mount point for you.

10.3.6. Are You Seeing Python Errors?

During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()    
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in doInstall 
self.fstab.savePartitions ()    
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions      
sys.exit(0)  
SystemExit: 0   
Local variables in innermost frame:  
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>  
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>  
ToDo object:  (itodo  ToDo  p1  (dp2  S'method'  p3  (iimage  CdromInstallMethod  
p4  (dp5  S'progressWindow'  p6   <failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available updates for anaconda. Updates for anaconda and instructions for using them can be found at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Updates
You can also find and download errata for anaconda through your Red Hat Subscription. Log in to your account through the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login, click the Errata link at the top of the window, enter anaconda in the field marked Filter by Synopsis, and click go.
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/

10.4. Problems After Installation

10.4.1. Trouble With the Graphical GRUB Screen on an x86-based System?

If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot screen. To do this, become the root user and edit the /boot/grub/grub.conf file.
Within the grub.conf file, comment out the line which begins with splashimage by inserting the # character at the beginning of the line.
Press Enter to exit the editing mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you reboot, the grub.conf file is reread and any changes you have made take effect.
You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting (or adding) the above line back into the grub.conf file.

10.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment

If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file, /etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are: 
#   0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) 
#   1 - Single user mode 
#   2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking) 
#   3 - Full multiuser mode 
#   4 - unused 
#   5 - X11 
#   6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) 
#  id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.

Warning

Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
	 id:5:initdefault: 
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.

10.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)

If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both, during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop environment.

10.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users

If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and /tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful before.

10.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In

If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
If you are using an x86-based system and GRUB is your installed boot loader, type e for edit when the GRUB boot screen has loaded. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add:
	single
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
	http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/

10.4.6. Is Your RAM Not Being Recognized?

Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory (RAM). You can check this with the cat /proc/meminfo command.
Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. If they are not equal, add the following line to the /boot/grub/grub.conf:
mem=xxM
Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes.
In /boot/grub/grub.conf, the above example would look similar to the following:
# NOTICE: You have a /boot partition. This means that 
#  all kernel paths are relative to /boot/ 
default=0 
timeout=30 
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz 
 title Red Hat Enterprise Linux Client (2.6.27.19-170.2.35.el5.i686)
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.fc10.i686 ro root=UUID=04a07c13-e6bf-6d5a-b207-002689545705 mem=1024M
initrd /initrd-2.6.27.19-170.2.35.fc10.i686.img
Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.conf are reflected on your system.
Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.
Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry.
At the end of the kernel line, add
mem=xxM
where xx equals the amount of RAM in your system.
Press Enter to exit edit mode.
Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system.
Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot.

10.4.7. Your Printer Does Not Work

If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.

10.4.8. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup

If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost

Part II. IBM POWER Architecture - Installation and Booting

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux Installation Guide for IBM POWER systems discusses the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and some basic post-installation troubleshooting. For advanced installation options, refer to Part IV, “Advanced installation options”.

Important — only 64-bit POWER architecture is supported

Previous releases of Red Hat Enterprise Linux supported the 32-bit and 64-bit POWER architectures (ppc and ppc64 respectively). Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 supports only on the 64-bit POWER architecture (ppc64).

Table of Contents

11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture
11.1. Upgrade or Install?
11.2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p
11.3. RAID and Other Disk Devices
11.3.1. Hardware RAID
11.3.2. Software RAID
11.3.3. FireWire and USB Disks
11.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?
11.5. Choose a boot method
12. Preparing for Installation
12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
12.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems
13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation
13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation
13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file
13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc
13.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update
13.3. Performing a driver update during installation
13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk
13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update
13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk
13.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update
13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk
14. Booting the Installer
14.1. The Boot Menu
14.2. Installing from a Different Source
14.3. Booting from the Network using PXE
15. Configuring Language and Installation Source
15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
15.2. Language Selection
15.3. Installation Method
15.3.1. Beginning Installation
15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation
15.3.4. Installing via NFS
15.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
15.4. Verifying Media
16. Installing using anaconda
16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles
16.4. Using the HMC vterm
16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
16.6. Storage Devices
16.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
16.7. Keyboard Configuration
16.8. Setting the Hostname
16.8.1. Edit Network Connections
16.9. Time Zone Configuration
16.10. Set the Root Password
16.11. Assign Storage Devices
16.12. Initializing the Hard Disk
16.13. Upgrading an Existing System
16.13.1. The Upgrade Dialog
16.13.2. Upgrading Using the Installer
16.14. Disk Partitioning Setup
16.15. Encrypt Partitions
16.16. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
16.16.1. Create Storage
16.16.2. Adding Partitions
16.16.3. Create Software RAID
16.16.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
16.16.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
16.17. Write changes to disk
16.18. Package Group Selection
16.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
16.18.2. Customizing the Software Selection
16.19. Installing Packages
16.20. Installation Complete
17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System
17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation
17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation
17.3. Trouble During the Installation
17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
17.3.2. Saving traceback messages
17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables
17.3.4. Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users
17.3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
17.4. Problems After Installation
17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG
17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment
17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)
17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users
17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In
17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work
17.4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup

Chapter 11. Planning for Installation on the POWER Architecture

11.1. Upgrade or Install?

For information to help you determine whether to perform an upgrade or an installation refer to Chapter 37, Upgrading Your Current System.

11.2. Preparation for IBM eServer System p

Important — Check the real-base boot parameter

Ensure that the real-base boot parameter is set to c00000, otherwise you might see errors such as:
DEFAULT CATCH!, exception-handler=fff00300
The IBM eServer System p introduces many options for partitioning, virtual or native devices, and consoles. Both versions of the system use the same kernel and have many of the same options available, depending on the system configuration.
If you are using a non-partitioned system, you do not need any pre-installation setup. For systems using the HVSI serial console, hook up your console to the T2 serial port.
If using a partitioned system the steps to create the partition and start the installation are largely the same. You should create the partition at the HMC and assign some CPU and memory resources, as well as SCSI and Ethernet resources, which can be either virtual or native. The HMC create partition wizard steps you through the creation.
For more information on creating the partition, refer to IBM's Infocenter article on Configuring Linux logical partitions available online at: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?topic=/iphbi/iphbikickoff.htm
If you are using virtual SCSI resources, rather than native SCSI, you must configure a 'link' to the virtual SCSI serving partition, and then configure the virtual SCSI serving partition itself. You create a 'link' between the virtual SCSI client and server slots using the HMC. You can configure a virtual SCSI server on either AIX or i5/OS, depending on which model and options you have.
For more information on using virtual devices, including IBM Redbooks and other online resources see: http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/eserver/v1r3s/index.jsp?topic=/iphbi/iphbirelated.htm
Once you have your system configured, you need to Activate from the HMC or power it on. Depending on what type of install you are doing, you may need to configure SMS to correctly boot the system into the installation program.

11.3.  RAID and Other Disk Devices

Important — Systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 uses mdraid instead of dmraid for installation onto Intel BIOS RAID sets. These sets are detected automatically, and devices with Intel ISW metadata are recognized as mdraid instead of dmraid. Note that the device node names of any such devices under mdraid are different from their device node names under dmraid. Therefore, special precautions are necessary when you migrate systems with Intel BIOS RAID sets.
Local modifications to /etc/fstab, /etc/crypttab or other configuration files which refer to devices by their device node names will not work in Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6. Before migrating these files, you must therefore edit them to replace device node paths with device UUIDs instead. You can find the UUIDs of devices with the blkid command.

11.3.1.  Hardware RAID

RAID, or Redundant Array of Independent Disks, allows a group, or array, of drives to act as a single device. Configure any RAID functions provided by the mainboard of your computer, or attached controller cards, before you begin the installation process. Each active RAID array appears as one drive within Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
On systems with more than one hard drive you may configure Red Hat Enterprise Linux to operate several of the drives as a Linux RAID array without requiring any additional hardware.

11.3.2.  Software RAID

You can use the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program to create Linux software RAID arrays, where RAID functions are controlled by the operating system rather than dedicated hardware. These functions are explained in detail in Section 16.16, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”.

11.3.3.  FireWire and USB Disks

Some FireWire and USB hard disks may not be recognized by the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system. If configuration of these disks at installation time is not vital, disconnect them to avoid any confusion.

Post-installation Usage

You can connect and configure external FireWire and USB hard disks after installation. Most such devices are recognized by the kernel and available for use at that time.

11.4. Do You Have Enough Disk Space?

Nearly every modern-day operating system (OS) uses disk partitions, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux is no exception. When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you may have to work with disk partitions. If you have not worked with disk partitions before (or need a quick review of the basic concepts), refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions before proceeding.
The disk space used by Red Hat Enterprise Linux must be separate from the disk space used by other OSes you may have installed on your system.
Before you start the installation process, you must
  • have enough unpartitioned[5] disk space for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or
  • have one or more partitions that may be deleted, thereby freeing up enough disk space to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To gain a better sense of how much space you really need, refer to the recommended partitioning sizes discussed in Section 16.16.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.

11.5. Choose a boot method

Installing from a DVD requires that you have purchased a Red Hat Enterprise Linux product, you have a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 DVD, and you have a DVD drive on a system that supports booting from it. Refer to Chapter 2, Making Media for instructions to make an installation DVD.
Other than booting from an installation DVD, you can also boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program from minimal boot media in the form of a bootable CD. After you boot the system with boot CD, you complete the installation from a different installation source, such as a local hard drive or a location on a network. Refer to Section 2.3, “Making Minimal Boot Media” for instructions on making boot CDs.


[5] Unpartitioned disk space means that available disk space on the hard drives you are installing to has not been divided into sections for data. When you partition a disk, each partition behaves like a separate disk drive.

Chapter 12. Preparing for Installation

12.1. Preparing for a Network Installation

Important — eHEA does not work with huge pages

The eHEA module fails to initialize if 16 GB huge pages are assigned to a system or partition and the kernel command line does not contain the huge page parameters. Therefore, when you perform a network installation through an IBM eHEA ethernet adapter, you cannot assign huge pages to the system or partition during the installation. Large pages should work.

Note

Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your system's CD or DVD drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate, network-accessible server. It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
	linux mediacheck

Note

The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging server, continue with either Section 12.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.

12.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation

Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared over FTP or HTTP.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.

12.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation

For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
  1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
    mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
  2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  3. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  4. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 16.18, “Package Group Selection”).
  5. Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in /etc/exports on the network server.
    To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
    /publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
    To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
    /publicly/available/directory * (ro)
  6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
  7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

12.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation

Note — Not all file systems supported

Hard drive installations only work from ext2, ext3, ext4, or FAT file systems. You cannot use a hard drives formatted for any other file system as an installation source for Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Windows operating system, use the Disk Management tool. To check the file system of a hard drive partition on a Linux operating system, use the fdisk tool.

Cannot Install from LVM Partitions

You cannot use ISO files on partitions controlled by LVM (Logical Volume Management).
Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on systems without a DVD drive or network connection.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
  • an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the content of a DVD.
  • an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
  • optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 15.3, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available on CD, DVD, or a USB storage device such as a flash drive.
To prepare a hard drive as an installation source, follow these steps:
  1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
    dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
    where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
  2. Transfer the ISO image to the hard drive.
    The ISO image must be located on a hard drive that is either internal to the computer on which you will install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, or on a hard drive that is attached to that computer by USB.
  3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  4. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  5. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 9.17, “Package Group Selection”).

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

Chapter 13. Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems

In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor on a driver disc that contains rpm packages. Typically, the driver disc is available for download as an ISO image file.
Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of hardware afterward — refer to Section 35.1.1, “Driver update rpm packages” for details of adding this support.
In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support a particular configuration. For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You can use a driver disc to add this support during installation in one of three ways:
  1. place the ISO image file of the driver disc in a location accessible to the installer:
    1. on a local hard drive
    2. a USB flash drive
  2. create a driver disc by extracting the image file onto:
    1. a CD
    2. a DVD
    Refer to the instructions for making installation discs in Section 2.1, “Making an installation DVD” for more information on burning ISO image files to CD or DVD.
  3. create an initial ramdisk update from the image file and store it on a PXE server. This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any other method.
If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver update during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it. Although installing an unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not intended can complicate support.

13.1. Limitations of driver updates during installation

Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers during installation:
Devices already in use
You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update”.
Devices with an equivalent device available
Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device. For example, consider a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available. The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not be able to use this driver update. Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk driver update.

13.2. Preparing for a driver update during installation

If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party such as the hardware vendor will typically provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation program, others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk, and one requires you to prepare an initial RAM disk update:
Methods that use the image file itself
  • local hard drive
  • USB flash drive
Methods that use a driver update disk produced from an image file
  • CD
  • DVD
Methods that use an initial RAM disk update
  • PXE
Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 13.2.1, “Preparing to use a driver update image file”, Section 13.2.2, “Preparing a driver disc” or Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update”. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk.

13.2.1. Preparing to use a driver update image file

13.2.1.1. Preparing to use an image file on local storage

To make the ISO image file available on local storage, such as a hard drive or USB flash drive, simply copy the file onto the storage device. You can rename the file if you find it helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must remain .iso. In the following example, the file is named dd.iso:
Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file
File browser window displaying a single file, named dd.iso
Figure 13.1. Content of a USB flash drive holding a driver update image file

Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. This differs from driver discs on formats such as CD and DVD, which contain many files. The ISO image file contains all of the files that would normally be on a driver disc.
If you change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV, the installation program will automatically examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects. This behavior is controlled by the dlabel=on boot option, which is enabled by default. Refer to Section 13.3.1, “Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk”.

13.2.2. Preparing a driver disc

You can create a driver update disc on CD or DVD.

13.2.2.1. Creating a driver update disk on CD or DVD

These instructions assume that you use the GNOME desktop

CD/DVD Creator is part of the GNOME desktop. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the CD or DVD. The steps will be generally similar.
Make sure that the software that you choose can create CDs or DVDs from image files. While this is true of most CD and DVD burning software, exceptions exist. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.
  1. Use the desktop file manager to locate the ISO image file of the driver disc, supplied to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor.
    A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window
    The file manager window shows a single image file, named dd.iso.
    Figure 13.2. A typical .iso file displayed in a file manager window

  2. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:
    CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
    CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog
    Figure 13.3. CD/DVD Creator's Write to Disc dialog

  3. Click the Write button. If a blank disc is not already in the drive, CD/DVD Creator will prompt you to insert one.
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD
After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager. You should see a single file named rhdd3 and a directory named rpms:
Figure 13.4. Contents of a typical driver update disc on CD or DVD

If you see only a single file ending in .iso, then you have not created the disk correctly and should try again. Ensure that you choose an option similar to burn from image if you use a Linux desktop other than GNOME or if you use a different operating system.

13.2.3. Preparing an initial RAM disk update

Advanced procedure

This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any other method.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can load updates for itself early in the installation process from a RAM disk — an area of your computer's memory that temporarily behaves as if it were a disk. You can use this same capability to load driver updates. To perform a driver update during installation, your computer must be able to boot from a preboot execution environment (PXE) server, and you must have a PXE server available on your network. Refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on using PXE during installation.
To make the driver update available on your PXE server:
  1. Place the driver update image file on your PXE server. Usually, you would do this by downloading it to the PXE server from a location on the Internet specified by Red Hat or your hardware vendor. Names of driver update image files end in .iso.
  2. Copy the driver update image file into the /tmp/initrd_update directory.
  3. Rename the driver update image file to dd.img.
  4. At the command line, change into the /tmp/initrd_update directory, type the following command, and press Enter:
    find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
    
  5. Copy the file /tmp/initrd_update.img into the directory the holds the target that you want to use for installation. This directory is placed under the /tftpboot/pxelinux/ directory. For example, /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/ might hold the PXE target for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Client.
  6. Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file to include an entry that includes the initial RAM disk update that you just created, in the following format:
    label target-dd
    kernel target/vmlinuz
    append initrd=target/initrd.img,target/dd.img
    
    Where target is the target that you want to use for installation.
Refer to Section 13.3.4, “Select a PXE target that includes a driver update” to learn how to use an initial RAM disk update during installation.
Example 13.1. Preparing an initial RAM disk update from a driver update image file
In this example, driver_update.iso is a driver update image file that you downloaded from the Internet to a directory on your PXE server. The target that you want to PXE boot from is located in /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/
At the command line, change to the directory that holds the file and enter the following commands:
$ cp driver_update.iso /tmp/initrd_update/dd.img
$ cd /tmp/initrd_update
$ find . | cpio --quiet -c -o | gzip -9 >/tmp/initrd_update.img
$ cp /tmp/initrd_update.img /tftpboot/pxelinux/r6c/dd.img
Edit the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file and include the following entry:
label r6c-dd
kernel r6c/vmlinuz
append initrd=r6c/initrd.img,r6c/dd.img

13.3. Performing a driver update during installation

You can perform a driver update during installation in the following ways:
  • let the installer automatically find a driver update disk.
  • let the installer prompt you for a driver update.
  • use a boot option to specify a driver update disk.
  • select a PXE target that includes a driver update.

13.3.1. Let the installer automatically find a driver update disk

Attach a block device with the filesystem label OEMDRV before starting the installation process. The installer will automatically examine the device and load any driver updates that it detects and will not prompt you during the process. Refer to Section 13.2.1.1, “Preparing to use an image file on local storage” to prepare a storage device for the installer to find.

13.3.2. Let the installer prompt you for a driver update

  1. Begin the installation normally for whatever method you have chosen. If the installer cannot load drivers for a piece of hardware that is essential for the installation process (for example, if it cannot detect any network or storage controllers), it prompts you to insert a driver update disk:
    The no driver found dialog
    The dialog reports that the installer did not find the devices needed for this installation type, and asks you to select a driver, use a driver disk, or go back.
    Figure 13.5. The no driver found dialog

13.3.3. Use a boot option to specify a driver update disk

Choose this method only for completely new drivers

This method only works to introduce completely new drivers, not to update existing drivers.
  1. Type linux dd at the boot prompt at the start of the installation process and press Enter. The installer prompts you to confirm that you have a driver disk:
    The driver disk prompt
    The driver disk prompt
    Figure 13.6. The driver disk prompt

  2. Insert the driver update disk that you created on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive and select Yes. The installer examines the storage devices that it can detect. If there is only one possible location that could hold a driver disk (for example, the installer detects the presence of a DVD drive, but no other storage devices) it will automatically load any driver updates that it finds at this location.
    If the installer finds more than one location that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to specify the location of the update. Refer to to Section 13.4, “Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk” .

13.3.4. Select a PXE target that includes a driver update

  1. Select network boot in your computer's BIOS or boot menu. The procedure to specify this option varies widely among different computers. Consult your hardware documentation or the hardware vendor for specifics relevant to your computer.
  2. In the preexecution boot environment (PXE), choose the boot target that you prepared on your PXE server. For example, if you labeled this environment r6c-dd in the /tftpboot/pxelinux/pxelinux.cfg/default file on your PXE server, type r6c-dd at the prompt and press Enter.
Refer to Section 13.2.3, “Preparing an initial RAM disk update” and Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server for instructions on using PXE to perform an update during installation. Note that this is an advanced procedure — do not attempt it unless other methods of performing a driver update fail.

13.4. Specifying the location of a driver update image file or driver update disk

If the installer detects more than one possible device that could hold a driver update, it prompts you to select the correct device. If you are not sure which option represents the device on which the driver update is stored, try the various options in order until you find the correct one.
Selecting a driver disk source
The screen shows three devices that could hold a driver update
Figure 13.7. Selecting a driver disk source

If the device that you choose contains no suitable update media, the installer will prompt you to make another choice.
If you made a driver update disk on CD, DVD, or USB flash drive, the installer now loads the driver update. However, if the device that you selected is a type of device that could contain more than one partition (whether the device currently has more than one partition or not), the installer might prompt you to select the partition that holds the driver update.
Selecting a driver disk partition
The screen prompts you to select a partition. In this example, there is only one to choose from, /dev/sda1.
Figure 13.8. Selecting a driver disk partition

The installer prompts you to specify which file contains the driver update:
Selecting an ISO image
The screen prompts you to choose a file. In this example, the driver update image is dd.iso
Figure 13.9. Selecting an ISO image

Expect to see these screens if you stored the driver update on an internal hard drive or on a USB storage device. You should not see them if the driver update is on a CD or DVD.
Regardless of whether you are providing a driver update in the form of an image file or with a driver update disk, the installer now copies the appropriate update files into a temporary storage area (located in system RAM and not on disk). The installer might ask whether you would like to use additional driver updates. If you select Yes, you can load additional updates in turn. When you have no further driver updates to load, select No. If you stored the driver update on removeable media, you can now safely eject or disconnect the disk or device. The installer no longer requires the driver update, and you can re-use the media for other purposes.

Chapter 14. Booting the Installer

Important — ramdisk.image.gz sometimes fails to load

On some machines yaboot may not boot, returning the error message:
Cannot load ramdisk.image.gz: Claim failed for initrd memory at 02000000 rc=ffffffff
To work around this issue, change real-base to c00000. You can obtain the value of real-base from the OpenFirmware prompt with the printenv command and set the value with the setenv command.
To boot an IBM System p system from a DVD, you must specify the install boot device in the System Management Services (SMS) menu.
To enter the System Management Services GUI, press the 1 key during the boot process when you hear the chime sound. This brings up a graphical interface similar to the one described in this section.
On a text console, press 1 when the self test is displaying the banner along with the tested components:
SMS console
SMS console screen
Figure 14.1. SMS console

Once in the SMS menu, select the option for Select Boot Options. In that menu, specify Select Install or Boot a Device. There, select CD/DVD, and then the bus type (in most cases SCSI). If you are uncertain, you can select to view all devices. This scans all available buses for boot devices, including network adapters and hard drives.
Finally, select the device containing the installation DVD. YABOOT is loaded from this device and you are presented with a boot: prompt. Press Enter or wait for the timeout to expire for the installation to begin.
If you are booting via the network, use the images/netboot/ppc64.img file on the DVD.

14.1. The Boot Menu

The boot media displays a graphical boot menu with several options. If no key is hit within 60 seconds, the default boot option runs. To choose the default, either wait for the timer to run out or hit Enter on the keyboard. To select a different option than the default, use the arrow keys on your keyboard, and hit Enter when the correct option is highlighted. If you want to customize the boot options for a particular option, press the Tab key.
The boot screen
The boot screen
Figure 14.2. The boot screen

For a listing and explanation of common boot options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options.
The boot menu options are:
Install or upgrade an existing system
This option is the default. Choose this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto your computer system using the graphical installation program.
Install system with basic video driver
This option allows you to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in graphical mode even if the installation program is unable to load the correct driver for your video card. If your screen appears distorted or goes blank when using the the Install or upgrade an existing system option, restart your computer and try this option instead.
Rescue installed system
Choose this option to repair a problem with your installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system that prevents you from booting normally. Although Red Hat Enterprise Linux is an exceptionally stable computing platform, it is still possible for occasional problems to occur that prevent booting. The rescue environment contains utility programs that allow you fix a wide variety of these problems.
Boot from local drive
This option boots the system from the first installed disk. If you booted this disc accidentally, use this option to boot from the hard disk immediately without starting the installer.

14.2.  Installing from a Different Source

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from the ISO images stored on hard disk, or from a network using NFS, FTP, or HTTP methods. Experienced users frequently use one of these methods because it is often faster to read data from a hard disk or network server than from a DVD.
The following table summarizes the different boot methods and recommended installation methods to use with each:
Table 14.1. Boot methods and installation sources
Boot method Installation source
Installation DVD DVD, network, or hard disk
Installation USB flash drive USB flash drive, installation DVD, network, or hard disk
Minimal boot CD or USB, rescue CD Network or hard disk

Refer to Section 3.5, “Selecting an Installation Method” for information about installing from locations other than the media with which you booted the system.

14.3.  Booting from the Network using PXE

To boot with PXE, you need a properly configured server, and a network interface in your computer that supports PXE. For information on how to configure a PXE server, refer to Chapter 30, Setting Up an Installation Server.
Configure the computer to boot from the network interface. This option is in the BIOS, and may be labeled Network Boot or Boot Services. Once you properly configure PXE booting, the computer can boot the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation system without any other media.
To boot a computer from a PXE server:
  1. Ensure that the network cable is attached. The link indicator light on the network socket should be lit, even if the computer is not switched on.
  2. Switch on the computer.
  3. A menu screen appears. Press the number key that corresponds to the desired option.
If your PC does not boot from the netboot server, ensure that the BIOS is configured to boot first from the correct network interface. Some BIOS systems specify the network interface as a possible boot device, but do not support the PXE standard. Refer to your hardware documentation for more information.

Note — Multiple NICs and PXE installation

Some servers with multiple network interfaces might not assign eth0 to the first network interface as the firmware interface knows it, which can cause the installer to try to use a different network interface from the one that was used by PXE. To change this behavior, use the following in pxelinux.cfg/* config files:
IPAPPEND 2
APPEND ksdevice=bootif
These configuration options above cause the installer to use the same network interface the firmware interface and PXE use. You can also use the following option:
ksdevice=link
This option causes the installer to use the first network device it finds that is linked to a network switch.

Chapter 15. Configuring Language and Installation Source

Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation source.

15.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

Important — Graphical installation recommended

We recommed that you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux using the graphical interface. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a system that lacks a graphical display, consider performing the installation over a VNC connection – see Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC. If anaconda detects that you are installing in text mode on a system where installation over a VNC connection might be possible, anaconda asks you to verify your decision to install in text mode even though your options during installation are limited.
If your system has a graphical display, but graphical installation fails, try booting with the xdriver=vesa option – refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options
Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 15.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, and Figure 15.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Figure 15.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup

Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Figure 15.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language

The widgets include:
  • Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
  • Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
  • Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that line.
  • Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
  • Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a file.
  • Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
  • Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 15.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 15.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, shows the cursor on the Edit button.

15.1.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate

Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the OK button.

Warning

Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).

15.2. Language Selection

Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer to Figure 15.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 16.18.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Language Selection
Language selection screen.
Figure 15.3. Language Selection

Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.

15.3. Installation Method

Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 15.4, “Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Installation Method
Installation method screen.
Figure 15.4. Installation Method

15.3.1.  Beginning Installation

15.3.1.1. Installing from DVD

To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD your DVD drive and boot your system from the DVD. Even if you booted from alternative media, you can still install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from DVD media.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD drive. It starts by looking for an IDE (also known as an ATAPI) DVD drive.
If your DVD drive is not detected, and it is a SCSI DVD, the installation program prompts you to choose a SCSI driver. Choose the driver that most closely resembles your adapter. You may specify options for the driver if necessary; however, most drivers detect your SCSI adapter automatically.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer will present you with the option to perform a media check on the DVD. This will take some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 16.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).

15.3.2. Installing from a Hard Drive

The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Selecting partition dialog for a hard drive installation.
Figure 15.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation

Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. Internal IDE, SATA, SCSI, and USB drive device names begin with /dev/sd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/sda1.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
Table 15.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
Partition type Volume Original path to files Directory to use
VFAT D:\ D:\Downloads\RHEL6 /Downloads/RHEL6
ext2, ext3, ext4 /home /home/user1/RHEL6 /user1/RHEL6

If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.

Use a leading slash

An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.
Select OK to continue. Proceed with Chapter 16, Installing using anaconda.

15.3.3. Performing a Network Installation

If you are performing a network installation, the Configure TCP/IP dialog appears. This dialog asks for your IP and other network addresses. You can choose to configure the IP address and Netmask of the device via DHCP or manually.
TCP/IP Configuration
Configure the network device address(es) for installation.
Figure 15.6. TCP/IP Configuration

15.3.4. Installing via NFS

The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 12.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/ which contains the variant/ directory.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
NFS Setup Dialog
NFS setup dialog.
Figure 15.7. NFS Setup Dialog

If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.

15.3.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP

Important — you must specify the protocol

When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/ppc64/
URL Setup Dialog
URL setup dialog.
Figure 15.8. URL Setup Dialog

15.4. Verifying Media

The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.

Chapter 16. Installing using anaconda

This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.

16.1. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and include:
  • configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
  • customizing the partition layout
  • customizing the bootloader layout
  • selecting packages during installation
  • configuring the installed system with Firstboot

16.2. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface

If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.
If you would like to use a graphical installation with a system that does not have that capability, such as a partitioned system, you can use VNC or display forwarding. Both the VNC and display forwarding options require an active network during the installation and the use of boot time arguments. For more information on available boot time options, refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options

Note

If you do not wish to use the GUI installation program, the text mode installation program is also available. To start the text mode installation program, use the following command at the yaboot: prompt:
linux text
Refer to Section 14.1, “The Boot Menu” for a description of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot menu and to Section 15.1, “The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface” for a brief overview of text mode installation instructions.
It is highly recommended that installs be performed using the GUI installation program. The GUI installation program offers the full functionality of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program, including LVM configuration which is not available during a text mode installation.
Users who must use the text mode installation program can follow the GUI installation instructions and obtain all needed information.

16.3. A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles

This information only applies to users of non-partitioned System p systems using a video card as their console. Users of partitioned System p systems should skip to Section 16.4, “Using the HMC vterm”.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program offers more than the dialog boxes of the installation process. Several kinds of diagnostic messages are available to you, as well as a way to enter commands from a shell prompt. The installation program displays these messages on five virtual consoles, among which you can switch using a single keystroke combination.
A virtual console is a shell prompt in a non-graphical environment, accessed from the physical machine, not remotely. Multiple virtual consoles can be accessed simultaneously.
These virtual consoles can be helpful if you encounter a problem while installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Messages displayed on the installation or system consoles can help pinpoint a problem. Refer to Table 16.1, “Console, Keystrokes, and Contents” for a listing of the virtual consoles, keystrokes used to switch to them, and their contents.
Generally, there is no reason to leave the default console (virtual console #6) for graphical installations unless you are attempting to diagnose installation problems.
Table 16.1. Console, Keystrokes, and Contents
console keystrokes contents
1 ctrl+alt+f1 installation dialog
2 ctrl+alt+f2 shell prompt
3 ctrl+alt+f3 install log (messages from installation program)
4 ctrl+alt+f4 system-related messages
5 ctrl+alt+f5 other messages
6 ctrl+alt+f6 x graphical display

16.4. Using the HMC vterm

The HMC vterm is the console for any partitioned IBM System p. This is opened by right clicking on the partition on the HMC, and then selecting Open Terminal Window. Only a single vterm can be connected to the console at one time and there is no console access for partitioned system besides the vterm. This often is referred to as a 'virtual console', but is different from the virtual consoles in Section 16.3, “A Note about Linux Virtual Consoles” .

16.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux

The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Click on the Next button to continue.

16.6. Storage Devices

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. This screen allows you to select either basic or specialized storage devices.
Storage devices
Screen to select basic or specialized storage devices
Figure 16.1. Storage devices

Basic Storage Devices
Select Basic Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage devices:
  • hard drives or solid-state drives connected directly to the local system.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage devices:
  • Storage area networks (SANs)
  • Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
  • Firmware RAID devices
  • Multipath devices
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.
If you select Basic Storage Devices, anaconda automatically detects the local storage attached to the system and does not require further input from you. Proceed to Section 16.8, “Setting the Hostname”.

16.6.1.  The Storage Devices Selection Screen

The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Select storage devices — Basic devices
The Basic Devices tab
Figure 16.2. Select storage devices — Basic devices

Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
The Multipath Devices tab
Figure 16.3. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices

Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
The Other SAN Devices tab
Figure 16.4. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices

Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solid-state drives.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN).
If you do need to configure iSCSI or FCoE storage, click Add Advanced Target and refer to Section 16.6.1.1, “ Advanced Storage Options ”.
The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select between searching by port, target, and LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values) and searching by WWID (with a corresponding text box for this value).
Figure 16.5. The Storage Devices Search Tab

The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Selecting Columns
The drop-down menu in its expanded state
Figure 16.6. Selecting Columns

Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.

Important — chain loading

Any storage devices that you do not select on this screen are hidden from anaconda entirely. To chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from a different boot loader, select all the devices presented in this screen.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and proceed to Section 16.12, “Initializing the Hard Disk”

16.6.1.1.  Advanced Storage Options

From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCoE (Fibre channel over ethernet) SAN (storage area network). Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Advanced Storage Options
Advanced Storage Options.
Figure 16.7. Advanced Storage Options

16.6.1.1.1. Enable Network Interfaces
Use this dialog to configure the network interfaces through which the system will connect to networked storage devices.
Enable Network Interface
Enable Network Interface
Figure 16.8. Enable Network Interface

If your network does not have DHCP enabled, or if you need to override the DHCP settings, select the network interface that you plan to use from the Interfaces menu. Clear the checkbox for Use dynamic IP configuration (DHCP). You can now enter an IPv4 address and netmask for this system in the form address / netmask, along with the gateway address and nameserver address for your network.
Click OK to accept these settings and continue.
16.6.1.1.2.  Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password. If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using this information.
Configure ISCSI Parameters
Configure ISCSI Parameters.
Figure 16.9. Configure ISCSI Parameters

Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly, but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
16.6.1.1.3.  Configure FCoE Parameters
To configure an FCoE SAN, select Add FCoE SAN and click Add Drive.
On the menu that appears in the next dialog box, select the network interface that is connected to your FCoE switch and click Add FCoE Disk(s).
Configure FCoE Parameters
Configure FCoE Parameters
Figure 16.10. Configure FCoE Parameters

Data Center Bridging (DCB) is a set of enhancements to the Ethernet protocols designed to increase the efficiency of Ethernet connections in storage networks and clusters. Enable or disable the installer's awareness of DCB with the checkbox in this dialog.

16.7. Keyboard Configuration

Using your mouse, select the correct layout type (for example, U.S. English) for the keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default (refer to Figure 16.11, “Keyboard Configuration”).
Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue.
Keyboard Configuration
Keyboard configuration screen
Figure 16.11. Keyboard Configuration

Note

To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.

16.8. Setting the Hostname

Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name only.

Valid Hostnames

You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Setting the hostname
Setting the hostname
Figure 16.12. Setting the hostname

If your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system is connected directly to the Internet, you must pay attention to additional considerations to avoid service interruptions or risk action by your upstream service provider. A full discussion of these issues is beyond the scope of this document.

Modem Configuration

The installation program does not configure modems. Configure these devices after installation with the Network utility. The settings for your modem are specific to your particular Internet Service Provider (ISP).

16.8.1. Edit Network Connections

Important — Manual configuration is often needed

When a Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 installation boots for the first time, it activates any network interfaces that you configured during the installation process. However, the installer does not prompt you to configure network interfaces on some common installation paths, for example, when you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD to a local hard drive.
When you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a local installation source to a local storage device, be sure to configure at least one network interface manually if you require network access when the system boots for the first time.

Note

To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
To configure a network connection manually, click the button Configure Network. The Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure wired, wireless, mobile broadband, VPN, and DSL connections for the system using the NetworkManager tool. A full description of all configurations possible with NetworkManager is beyond the scope of this guide. This section only details the most typical scenario of how to configure wired connections during installation. Configuration of other types of network is broadly similar, although the specific parameters that you must configure are necessarily different.
Network Connections
Configuring network connections.
Figure 16.13. Network Connections

To add a new connection or to modify or remove a connection configured earlier in the installation process, click the tab that corresponds to the type of connection. To add a new connection of that type, click Add. To modify an existing connection, select it in the list and click Edit. In either case, a dialog box appears with a set of tabs that is appropriate to the particular connection type, as described below. To remove a connection, select it in the list and click Delete.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that re-configuring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.

16.8.1.1. Options common to all types of connection

Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.

16.8.1.2. The Wired tab

Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the interface.
The Wired tab
The Wired tab
Figure 16.14. The Wired tab

16.8.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab

Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
  • TLS for Transport Layer Security
  • Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
  • Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to make the password visible as you type it.
The 802.1x Security tab
The 802.1x Security tab
Figure 16.15. The 802.1x Security tab

16.8.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab

Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
The IPv4 Settings tab
The IPv4 Settings tab
Figure 16.16. The IPv4 Settings tab

16.8.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Figure 16.17. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

16.8.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab

Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
The IPv6 Settings tab
The IPv6 Settings tab
Figure 16.18. The IPv6 Settings tab

16.8.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Figure 16.19. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

16.9. Time Zone Configuration

Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
  • Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
  • You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Configuring the Time Zone
Time zone configuration screen.
Figure 16.20. Configuring the Time Zone

If Red Hat Enterprise Linux is the only operating system on your computer, select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.

Note

To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig.

16.10. Set the Root Password

Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.

Note

The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Root Password
Setting your root password.
Figure 16.21. Root Password

Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.

Note

To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[6] for your system. You cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.

Note

Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.

16.11.  Assign Storage Devices

If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to Section 16.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for data storage. If you selected only one storage device, anaconda does not present you with this screen.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Assign storage devices
Screen to select storage devices for installation or for data storage only
Figure 16.22. Assign storage devices

The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. Use this radio button to specify the device that you want to use as the boot device for the system.

Important — chain loading

If any storage device contains a boot loader that will chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader, include that storage device among the Install Target Devices. Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices remain visible to anaconda during boot loader configuration.
Storage devices that you identify as Install Target Devices on this screen are not automatically erased by the installation process unless you selected the Use All Space option on the partioning screen (refer to Section 16.14, “Disk Partitioning Setup”).
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.

16.12. Initializing the Hard Disk

If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to all devices.
Warning screen – initializing hard drive
Warning screen – initializing hard drive.
Figure 16.23. Warning screen – initializing hard drive

Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)

Detach Unneeded Disks

If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.

16.13.  Upgrading an Existing System

Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions

Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you need to upgrade your computer.

16.13.1.  The Upgrade Dialog

If your system contains a Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation, a dialog appears asking whether you want to upgrade that installation. To perform an upgrade of an existing system, choose the appropriate installation from the drop-down list and select Next.
The Upgrade Dialog
The Upgrade Dialog
Figure 16.24. The Upgrade Dialog

Manually Installed Software

Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.

16.13.2.  Upgrading Using the Installer

Installations are Recommended

In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc' 
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.

Storing Backups

Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an Upgrade”.

16.14. Disk Partitioning Setup

Warning — Back up your data

It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.

Important — Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.

Important — Booting from RAIDs

If you have a RAID card, be aware that some BIOSes do not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards.
A /boot/ partition is also necessary for software RAID setups.
If you have chosen to automatically partition your system, you should select Review and manually edit your /boot/ partition.
Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.
Disk Partitioning Setup
Choose automatic partitioning or manual partitioning.
Figure 16.25. Disk Partitioning Setup

On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drives (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions).

Warning

If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drives is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drives where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
In particular, do not select this option when you configure a system to chain load the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader from another boot loader.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only partitions created by a previous Linux installation. This does not remove other partitions you may have on your hard drives (such as VFAT or FAT32 partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

Warning

If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 11.4, “Do You Have Enough Disk Space?”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to Section 16.16, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.

Important — chain loading

To configure the Red Hat Enterprise Linux boot loader to chain load from a different boot loader, you must specify the boot drive manually. If you chose any of the automatic partitioning options, you must now select the Review and modify partitioning layout option before you click Next or you cannot specify the correct boot drive.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.

16.15.  Encrypt Partitions

If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for more information.
Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
The dialog contains text boxes to enter a passphrase and to confirm it.
Figure 16.26.  Enter passphrase for encrypted partition

Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.

Warning — Do not lose this passphrase

If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases”.

16.16.  Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout

If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to Section 16.17, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review, you can either accept the current partition settings (click Next), or modify the setup manually in the partitioning screen.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 16.16.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root (/) partition, a /boot/ partition, PReP boot partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Partitioning on IBM System p
The main partitioning screen for IBM System p.
Figure 16.27. Partitioning on IBM System p

The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the hard drive, logical volume, or RAID device selected in the lower pane.
Above the graphical representation of the device, you can review the name of the drive (such as /dev/sda or LogVol00), its size (in MB), and its model as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all drives, logical volumes, and RAID devices to be used during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 16.11, “ Assign Storage Devices ”
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen

16.16.1.  Create Storage

The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Creating Storage
Creating new storage
Figure 16.28. Creating Storage

Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 9.14.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Create Software RAID
  • RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
  • RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
  • RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device. This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
  • LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
  • LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
  • LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.

16.16.2. Adding Partitions

To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 16.29, “Creating a New Partition”).

Note

You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Creating a New Partition
Creating a new partition.
Figure 16.29. Creating a New Partition

  • Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
  • File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 16.16.2.1, “File System Types”.
  • Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should go.
  • Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
  • Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
    If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
  • Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
  • Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
  • OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
  • Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.

16.16.2.1. File System Types

Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
  • standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
  • swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
  • software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
  • physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
  • ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
  • ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [7] the file system.
  • ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
  • xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized while mounted and active.
  • vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
  • Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
    Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

    Btrfs is still experimental

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.

16.16.3.  Create Software RAID

Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.16.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
Create a software RAID partition
The create a software RAID partition dialog.
Figure 16.30. Create a software RAID partition

RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Create a RAID device
The create a RAID device dialog.
Figure 16.31. Create a RAID device

Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
  • RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
  • RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or more disks are attached to the system.
Clone a RAID device
The clone a RAID device dialog.
Figure 16.32. Clone a RAID device

16.16.4.  Create LVM Logical Volume

Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations

LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM configuration from scratch, press Alt+F2 to use a different virtual console, and run the lvm command. To return to the text-mode installation, press Alt+F1.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 16.16.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
Create an LVM Physical Volume
The Create an LVM Physical Volume dialog.
Figure 16.33. Create an LVM Physical Volume

Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Make LVM Volume Group
The Make LVM Volume Group dialog.
Figure 16.34. Make LVM Volume Group

To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Make Logical Volume
The Make Logical Volume dialog.
Figure 16.35. Make Logical Volume

16.16.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme

Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions:
  • A swap partition (at least 256 MB) — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.
    In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function of the memory workload running on that system. However, given that swap space is usually designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table.
    Table 16.2. Recommended System Swap Space
    Amount of RAM in the System Recommended Amount of Swap Space
    4GB of RAM or less a minimum of 2GB of swap space
    4GB to 16GB of RAM a minimum of 4GB of swap space
    16GB to 64GB of RAM a minimum of 8GB of swap space
    64GB to 256GB of RAM a minimum of 16GB of swap space
    256GB to 512GB of RAM a minimum of 32GB of swap space

    Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces.
  • A PReP boot partition on the first partition of the hard drive — the PReP boot partition contains the YABOOT boot loader (which allows other POWER systems to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Unless you plan to boot from a network source, you must have a PReP boot partition to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
    For IBM System p users: The PReP boot partition should be between 4-8 MB, not to exceed 10 MB.
  • A /boot/ partition (250 MB) — the partition mounted on /boot/ contains the operating system kernel (which allows your system to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process. Due to the limitations of most PC firmware, creating a small partition to hold these is a good idea. For most users, a 250 MB boot partition is sufficient.

    Warning

    If you have a RAID card, be aware that Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support setting up hardware RAID on an IPR card. If you already have the RAID array setup, Open Firmware does not support booting from the RAID card. In cases such as these, the /boot/ partition must be created on a partition outside of the RAID array, such as on a separate hard drive.
  • A root partition (3.0 GB - 5.0 GB)
    This is where "/" (the root directory) is located. In this setup, all files (except those stored in /boot) are on the root partition.
    A 3.0 GB partition allows you to install a minimal installation, while a 5.0 GB root partition lets you perform a full installation, choosing all package groups.

    Root and /root

    The / (or root) partition is the top of the directory structure. The /root directory/root (sometimes pronounced "slash-root") directory is the home directory of the user account for system administration.

Warning

The PackageKit update software downloads updated packages to /var/cache/yum/ by default. If you partition the system manually, and create a separate /var/ partition, be sure to create the partition large enough (3.0 GB or more) to download package updates.

16.17. Write changes to disk

The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Writing storage configuration to disk
The Writing storage configuration to disk dialog box lets you choose to Write changes to disk or to Go back.
Figure 16.36. Writing storage configuration to disk

If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.

Last chance to cancel safely

Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.

16.18. Package Group Selection

Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.

Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation, then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
Package Group Selection
Choose which package groups you want to install.
Figure 16.37. Package Group Selection

By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 16.19, “Installing Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 16.37, “Package Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.

16.18.1. Installing from Additional Repositories

You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
  • The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global file system (GFS).
  • The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
  • The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual Server (LVS).
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Adding a software repository
Enter the details of additional software repositories.
Figure 16.38. Adding a software repository

To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify repository.

Network Access Required

If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.

Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata

If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel only a single repository once entered.

16.18.2.  Customizing the Software Selection

Additional Language Support

Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the Languages category.

Note — 64-bit applications

Users who want support for developing or running 64-bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecure specific support for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select Next.
Package Group Details
Choose to add or remove optional packages from this package group.
Figure 16.39. Package Group Details

Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Package Selection List Context Menu
The Context Menu allows presents you with options to select or deselect packages, and to select or deselect all optional packages in a group.
Figure 16.40. Package Selection List Context Menu

After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the main menu, select SystemAdministrationAdd/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.

16.18.2.1.  Core Network Services

All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
  • centralized logging through syslog
  • email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
  • remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
  • resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
  • network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
  • printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
  • remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.

16.19. Installing Packages

At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the following progress bar while the installer resolves dependencies of the packages you selected for installation:
Starting installation
The starting installation progress bar
Figure 16.41. Starting installation

During installation of the selected packages and their dependencies, you see the following progress bar:
Packages completed
The Packages Completed progress bar
Figure 16.42. Packages completed

16.20. Installation Complete

Congratulations! Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation is now complete!
The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot.
After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, Red Hat Enterprise Linux loads and starts. By default, the start process is hidden behind a graphical screen that displays a progress bar. Eventually, a login: prompt or a GUI login screen (if you installed the X Window System and chose to start X automatically) appears.
The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 (the graphical run level), the FirstBoot tool appears, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. FirstBoot lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.


[6] A root password is the administrative password for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system. You should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.

[7] The fsck application is used to check the file system for metadata consistency and optionally repair one or more Linux file systems.

Chapter 17. Troubleshooting Installation on an IBM POWER System

This section discusses some common installation problems and their solutions.
For debugging purposes, anaconda logs installation actions into files in the /tmp directory. These files include:
/tmp/anaconda.log
general anaconda messages
/tmp/program.log
all external programs run by anaconda
/tmp/storage.log
extensive storage module information
/tmp/yum.log
yum package installation messages
/tmp/syslog
hardware-related system messages
If the installation fails, the messages from these files are consolidated into /tmp/anacdump.txt.
You may also find the IBM Online Alert Section for System p useful. It is located at:
http://www14.software.ibm.com/webapp/set2/sas/f/lopdiags/info/LinuxAlerts.html
All of the files above reside in the installer's ramdisk and are thus volatile. To make a permanent copy, copy those files to another system on the network using scp on the installation image (not the other way round).

17.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux

17.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?

A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault, means that the program accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware.
If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system's hardware. Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS.
Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images. Review the online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. A possible solution for this error is turning off the CPU-cache in the BIOS, if your system supports this. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.
Another option is to perform a media check on your installation DVD. Anaconda, the installation program, has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. Red Hat recommends that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot: prompt:
	linux mediacheck
For more information concerning signal 11 errors, refer to:
	http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/

17.2. Trouble Beginning the Installation

17.2.1. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation

There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode. If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode.
One possible solution is to try using the resolution= boot option. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for more information.

Note

To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using the nofb boot option. This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading hardware.

17.3. Trouble During the Installation

17.3.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message

If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.
Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 13, Updating drivers during installation on IBM POWER systems.
You can also refer to the Red Hat Hardware Compatibility List, available online at:

17.3.2. Saving traceback messages

If anaconda encounters an error during the graphical installation process, it presents you with a crash reporting dialog box:
The Crash Reporting Dialog Box
An unhandled exception has occurred. This is most likely a bug. Please save a copy of the detailed exception and file a bug report against anaconda at https://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Figure 17.1. The Crash Reporting Dialog Box

Details
shows you the details of the error:
Details of the Crash
Details of the crash, showing the python traceback
Figure 17.2. Details of the Crash

Save
saves details of the error locally or remotely:
Exit installer
exits the installation process.
If you select Save from the main dialog, you can choose from the following options:
Local disk
saves details of the error to the local hard drive, in a directory that you select with the file browser:
Save Crash Report to a Local disk
Local disk selected, displaying user's home directory
Figure 17.3. Save Crash Report to a Local disk

Bugzilla
submits details of the error to Red Hat's bug-tracking system, Bugzilla. You must supply an existing Bugzilla username and password, and a description of the bug.
Save Crash Report to Bugzilla
Bugzilla selected, displaying fields for username, password, and description
Figure 17.4. Save Crash Report to Bugzilla

Remote server
saves details of the error to a remote location using SCP. You must specify the username, password, host, and destination file.
Save Crash Report to Remote Server
Remote server selected, displaying fields for username, password, host, and destination file
Figure 17.5. Save Crash Report to Remote Server

IBM System p systems

This information does not apply to users of headless IBM System p systems.

17.3.3. Trouble with Partition Tables

If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup (Section 16.14, “Disk Partitioning Setup”) phase of the installation saying something similar to
The partition table on device hda was unreadable. To create new partitions it must be initialized, causing the loss of ALL DATA on this drive.
you may not have a partition table on that drive or the partition table on the drive may not be recognizable by the partitioning software used in the installation program.
No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems should always be made.

17.3.4.  Other Partitioning Problems for IBM™ POWER System Users

If you create partitions manually, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all the partitions necessary for installation to proceed.
You must have the following partitions as a bare minimum:
  • A / (root) partition
  • A <swap> partition of type swap
  • A PReP Boot partition.
  • A /boot/ partition.

Note

When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Anaconda automatically assigns the mount point for you.

17.3.5. Are You Seeing Python Errors?

During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program (also known as anaconda) may fail with a Python or traceback error. This error may occur after the selection of individual packages or while trying to save the upgrade log in the /tmp/directory. The error may look similar to:
Traceback (innermost last):
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/iw/progress_gui.py", line 20, in run
rc = self.todo.doInstall ()    
File "/var/tmp/anaconda-7.1//usr/lib/anaconda/todo.py", line 1468, in doInstall 
self.fstab.savePartitions ()    
File "fstab.py", line 221, in savePartitions      
sys.exit(0)  
SystemExit: 0   
Local variables in innermost frame:  
self: <fstab.GuiFstab instance at 8446fe0>  
sys: <module 'sys' (built-in)>  
ToDo object:  (itodo  ToDo  p1  (dp2  S'method'  p3  (iimage  CdromInstallMethod  
p4  (dp5  S'progressWindow'  p6   <failed>
This error occurs in some systems where links to /tmp/ are symbolic to other locations or have been changed since creation. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.
If you experience such an error, first try to download any available updates for anaconda. Updates for anaconda and instructions for using them can be found at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda/Updates
You can also find and download errata for anaconda through your Red Hat Subscription. Log in to your account through the customer portal at https://access.redhat.com/login, click the Errata link at the top of the window, enter anaconda in the field marked Filter by Synopsis, and click go.
The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:
http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/Anaconda
You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system, go to:
http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/
Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our support team. To register your product, go to:
http://www.redhat.com/apps/activate/

17.4. Problems After Installation

17.4.1. Unable to IPL from *NWSSTG

If you are experiencing difficulties when trying to IPL from *NWSSTG, you may not have created a PReP Boot partition set as active.

17.4.2. Booting into a Graphical Environment

If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command startx.
Once you enter this command and press Enter, the graphical desktop environment is displayed.
Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.
To set up your system so that you can log in at a graphical login screen, you must edit one file, /etc/inittab, by changing just one number in the runlevel section. When you are finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.
Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command.
Now, type gedit /etc/inittab to edit the file with gedit. The file /etc/inittab opens. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:
# Default runlevel. The runlevels used are: 
#   0 - halt (Do NOT set initdefault to this) 
#   1 - Single user mode 
#   2 - Multiuser, without NFS (The same as 3, if you do not have networking) 
#   3 - Full multiuser mode 
#   4 - unused 
#   5 - X11 
#   6 - reboot (Do NOT set initdefault to this) 
#  id:3:initdefault:
To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line id:3:initdefault: from a 3 to a 5.

Warning

Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5.
Your changed line should look like the following:
	 id:5:initdefault: 
When you are satisfied with your change, save and exit the file using the Ctrl+Q keys. A window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save.
The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.

17.4.3. Problems with the X Window System (GUI)

If you are having trouble getting X (the X Window System) to start, you may not have installed it during your installation.
If you want X, you can either install the packages from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation media or perform an upgrade.
If you elect to upgrade, select the X Window System packages, and choose GNOME, KDE, or both, during the upgrade package selection process.
Refer to Section 35.3, “Switching to a Graphical Login” for more detail on installing a desktop environment.

17.4.4. Problems with the X Server Crashing and Non-Root Users

If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone logs in, you may have a full file system (or, a lack of available hard drive space).
To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:
df -h
The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df and an explanation of the options available (such as the -h option used in this example), refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.
A key indicator is 100% full or a percentage above 90% or 95% on a partition. The /home/ and /tmp/ partitions can sometimes fill up quickly with user files. You can make some room on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful before.

17.4.5. Problems When You Try to Log In

If you did not create a user account in the firstboot screens, switch to a console by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F2, log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.
If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single.
Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the # prompt, you must type passwd root, which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password.
If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root. To become root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. Then, type passwd <username>. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account.
If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues. The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:
	http://hardware.redhat.com/hcl/

17.4.6. Your Printer Does Not Work

If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.
Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.

17.4.7. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup

If you are having trouble with the Apache-based httpd service or Sendmail hanging at startup, make sure the following line is in the /etc/hosts file:
127.0.0.1  localhost.localdomain  localhost

Part III. IBM System z Architecture - Installation and Booting

This part discusses installation and booting (or initial program load, IPL) of Red Hat Enterprise Linux on IBM System z.

Table of Contents

18. Planning for Installation on System z
18.1. Pre-Installation
18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure
18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer
18.2.2. Installation Phase 1
18.2.3. Installation Phase 2
18.2.4. Installation Phase 3
18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC
18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding
18.3.2. Installation using X11
18.3.3. Installation using VNC
18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener
18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart
19. Preparing for Installation
19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation
19.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation
19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation
19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation
19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive
20. Booting (IPL) the Installer
20.1. Installing under z/VM
20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader
20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD
20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.1.4. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
20.2. Installing in an LPAR
20.2.1. Using an FTP Server
20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive
20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD
20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk
20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive
21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device
21.1. A Note on Terminals
22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source
22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation
22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate
22.3. Language Selection
22.4. Installation Method
22.4.1. Installing from DVD
22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive
22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation
22.4.4. Installing via NFS
22.4.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP
22.5. Verifying Media
22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program
23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda
23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program Output
23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface
23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface
23.4. Configure the Install Terminal
23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux
23.6. Storage Devices
23.6.1. The Storage Devices Selection Screen
23.7. Setting the Hostname
23.7.1. Edit Network Connections
23.8. Time Zone Configuration
23.9. Set the Root Password
23.10. Assign Storage Devices
23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk
23.12. Upgrading an Existing System
23.12.1. Upgrading Using the Installer
23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup
23.14. Encrypt Partitions
23.15. Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout
23.15.1. Create Storage
23.15.2. Adding Partitions
23.15.3. Create Software RAID
23.15.4. Create LVM Logical Volume
23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme
23.16. Write changes to disk
23.17. Package Group Selection
23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories
23.17.2. Customizing the Software Selection
23.18. Installing Packages
23.19. Installation Complete
23.19.1. IPL under z/VM
23.19.2. IPL on an LPAR
23.19.3. Continuing after Reboot (re-IPL)
24. Troubleshooting Installation on IBM System z
24.1. You are unable to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux
24.1.1. Is Your System Displaying Signal 11 Errors?
24.2. Trouble During the Installation
24.2.1. No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux Error Message
24.2.2. Saving traceback messages
24.2.3. Other Partitioning Problems
24.2.4. Are You Seeing Python Errors?
24.3. Problems After Installation
24.3.1. Remote Graphical Desktops and XDMCP
24.3.2. Problems When You Try to Log In
24.3.3. Your Printer Does Not Work
24.3.4. Apache-based httpd service/Sendmail Hangs During Startup
25. Configuring an Installed Linux on System z Instance
25.1. Adding DASDs
25.1.1. Dynamically setting DASDs online
25.1.2. Preparing a new DASD with low-level formatting
25.1.3. Persistently setting DASDs online
25.2. Adding FCP-Attached Logical Units (LUNs)
25.2.1. Dynamically activating an FCP LUN
25.2.2. Persistently activating FCP LUNs
25.3. Adding a Network Device
25.3.1. Adding a qeth Device
25.3.2. Adding an LCS Device
25.3.3. Mapping subchannels and network device names
25.3.4. Configuring a System z Network Device for Network Root File System
26. Parameter and Configuration Files
26.1. Required parameters
26.2. The z/VM configuration file
26.3. Installation network parameters
26.4. VNC and X11 parameters
26.5. Loader parameters
26.6. Parameters for kickstart installations
26.7. Miscellaneous parameters
26.8. Sample parameter file and CMS configuration file
27. IBM System z References
27.1. IBM System z Publications
27.2. IBM Redbooks for System z
27.3. Online resources

Chapter 18. Planning for Installation on System z

18.1. Pre-Installation

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 runs on System z9 or later IBM mainframe systems.
The installation process assumes that you are familiar with the IBM System z and can set up logical partitions (LPARs) and z/VM guest virtual machines. For additional information on System z, refer to http://www.ibm.com/systems/z.
Before you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you must decide on the following:
  • Decide whether you want to run the operating system on an LPAR or as a z/VM guest operating system.
  • Decide if you need swap space and if so how much. Although it is possible (and recommended) to assign enough memory to z/VM guest virtual machine and let z/VM do the necessary swapping, there are cases where the amount of required RAM is hard to predict. Such instances should be examined on a case-by-case basis. Refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
  • Decide on a network configuration. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for IBM System z supports the following network devices:
    • Real and virtual Open Systems Adapter (OSA)
    • Real and virtual HiperSockets
    • LAN channel station (LCS) for real OSA
You require the following hardware:
  • Disk space. Calculate how much disk space you need and allocate sufficient disk space on DASDs[8] or SCSI[9] disks. You require at least 2 GB for a server installation, and 5 GB if you want to install all packages. You also require disk space for any application data. After the installation, more DASD or SCSI disk partitions may be added or deleted as necessary.
    The disk space used by the newly installed Red Hat Enterprise Linux system (the Linux instance) must be separate from the disk space used by other operating systems you may have installed on your system.
    For more information about disks and partition configuration, refer to Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”.
  • RAM. Acquire 1 GB (recommended) for the Linux instance. With some tuning, an instance might run with as little as 512 MB RAM.

18.2. Overview of the System z Installation Procedure

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on System z interactively or in unattended mode. Installation on System z differs from installation on other architectures in that it is typically performed over a network and not from a local DVD. The installation can be summarized as follows:
  1. Booting (IPL) the installer

    Connect with the mainframe, then perform an initial program load (IPL), or boot, from the medium containing the installation program.
  2. Installation Phase 1

    Set up an initial network device. This network device is then used to connect to the installation system via SSH or VNC. This gets you a full-screen mode terminal or graphical display to continue installation as on other architectures.
  3. Installation Phase 2

    Specify which language to use, and how and where the installation program and the software packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation medium can be found.
  4. Installation Phase 3

    Use anaconda (the main part of the Red Hat installation program) to perform the rest of the installation.
The Installation Process
Overview of the System z installation process
Figure 18.1. The Installation Process

18.2.1. Booting (IPL) the Installer

After establishing a connection with the mainframe, you need to perform an initial program load (IPL), or boot, from the medium containing the installation program. This document describes the most common methods of installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 on System z. In general, you can use any method to boot the Linux installation system, which consists of a kernel (kernel.img) and initial ramdisk (initrd.img) with at least the parameters in generic.prm. The Linux installation system is also called the installer in this book.
The control point from where you can start the IPL process depends on the environment where your Linux is to run. If your Linux is to run as a z/VM guest operating system, the control point is the control program (CP) of the hosting z/VM. If your Linux is to run in LPAR mode, the control point is the mainframe's Support Element (SE) or an attached IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC).
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run as a guest operating system under z/VM:
You can use the following boot media only if Linux is to run in LPAR mode:
You can use the following boot media for both z/VM and LPAR:
If you use DASD and FCP-attached SCSI devices (except SCSI DVDs) as boot media, you must have a configured zipl boot loader. For more information, see the Chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

18.2.2. Installation Phase 1

After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device. This network device is needed to complete the installation.
The interface you will use in installation phase 1 is the linuxrc interface, which is line-mode and text-based. (Refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device.)

18.2.3. Installation Phase 2

In installation phase 2, you need to specify what language to use and where phase 3 of the installation program and the software packages to be installed from the repository on the Red Hat installation medium can be found. On System z, the installation sources are usually transferred from the DVD to a network server. Phase 3 of the installation program and the repository can be accessed in one of the following ways:
  • Over the network using one of the FTP, HTTP, or NFS protocols. A separate network server (FTP, HTTP, or NFS), which holds all the required installation sources, must be set up in advance. For details on how to set up a network server, refer to Section 19.1, “Preparing for a Network Installation”.
  • Hard disk (DASD or a SCSI device attached through an FCP channel). You need to set up a disk that holds the required installation sources in advance. For details, Refer to Section 19.2, “Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation”.
  • Through an FCP-attached SCSI DVD. This is handled automatically if booted from FCP-attached SCSI DVD.
The interface you will use in installation phase 2 is the loader, which provides a full-screen text-based interface with a blue background by default. For unattended installations in cmdline mode, the loader offers line-mode, text-based output. (Refer to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source.)

18.2.4. Installation Phase 3

In installation phase 3 you will use anaconda in graphical, text-based, or cmdline mode:
  • Graphical mode
    This can be used through a VNC client (recommended) or through an X11 server. You can use your mouse and keyboard to navigate through the screens, click buttons, and enter text in fields.
  • Text-based mode
    This interface does not offer all interface elements of the GUI and does not support all settings. Use this for interactive installations if you cannot use a VNC client or X11 server.
  • cmdline mode
    This is intended for automated installations on System z. (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”)
If you have a slow network connection or prefer a text-based installation, do not use X11 forwarding when logging in over the network and do not set the display= variable in the parameter file (refer to Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 parameters” for details). In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 the text-based installation has been reduced to minimize user interaction. Features like installation on FCP-attached SCSI devices, changing partition layout, or package selection are only available with the graphical user interface installation. Use the graphical installation whenever possible. (Refer to Chapter 23, Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda.)

18.3. Graphical User Interface with X11 or VNC

To run anaconda with the graphical user interface, use a workstation that has either an X Window System (X11) server or VNC client installed.
You can use X11 forwarding with an SSH client or X11 directly. If the installer on your workstation fails because the X11 server does not support required X11 extensions you might have to upgrade the X11 server or use VNC.
To use VNC, disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the Linux installation system on the mainframe or specify the vnc parameter in your parameter file. Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. Refer to Section 28.2, “Enabling Remote Access to the Installation System”.
Table 18.1, “Parameters and SSH login types” shows how the parameters and SSH login type controls which anaconda user interface is used.
Table 18.1. Parameters and SSH login types
Parameter SSH login User interface
none SSH without X11 forwarding VNC or text
vnc SSH with or without X11 forwarding VNC
none SSH with X11 forwarding X11
display=IP/hostname:display SSH without X11 forwarding X11

18.3.1. Installation using X11 forwarding

You can connect a workstation to the Linux installation system on the mainframe and display the graphical installation program using SSH with X11 forwarding.
You require an SSH client that allows X11 forwarding. To open the connection, first start the X server on the workstation. Then connect to the Linux installation system. You can enable X11 forwarding in your SSH client when you connect.
For example, with OpenSSH enter the following in a terminal window on your workstation:
ssh -X install@linuxvm.example.com
Replace linuxvm.example.com with the hostname or IP address of the system you are installing. The -X option (the capital letter X) enables X11 forwarding.

18.3.2. Installation using X11

The direct connection from the X11 client to an X11 server on your local workstation requires an IP connection from your System z to your workstation. If the network and firewalls prevent such connections, use X11 forwarding or VNC instead.
The graphical installation program requires the DNS and hostname to be set correctly, and the Linux installation system must be allowed to open applications on your display. You can ensure this by setting the parameter display=workstationname:0.0 in the parameter file, where workstationname is the hostname of the client workstation connecting to the Linux image. Alternatively, you can set the display environment variable and run loader manually after having logged in with SSH as user root. By default you log in as user install. This starts the loader automatically and does not allow overriding the display environment variable.
To permit X11 clients to open applications on the X11 server on your workstation, use the xauth command. To manage X11 authorization cookies with xauth, you must log in to the Linux installation system using SSH as user root. For details on xauth and how to manage authorization cookies, refer to the xauth manpage.
In contrast to setting up X11 authorizations with xauth, you can use xhost to permit the Linux installation system to connect to the X11 server:
xhost +linuxvm
Replace linuxvm with the hostname or IP address of the Linux installation system. This allows linuxvm to make connections to the X11 server.
If the graphical installation does not begin automatically, verify the display= variable settings in the parameter file. If performing an installation under z/VM, rerun the installation to load the new parameter file on the reader.

18.3.3. Installation using VNC

Using VNC is recommended for slow or long-distance network connections. To use VNC, disable X11 forwarding in your SSH client prior to connecting to the temporary Linux installation system. The loader will then provide a choice between text-mode and VNC; choose VNC here. Alternatively, provide the vnc variable and optionally the vncpassword variable in your parameter file (refer to Section 26.4, “VNC and X11 parameters” for details).
A message on the workstation SSH terminal prompts you to start the VNC client viewer and provides details about the VNC display specifications. Enter the specifications from the SSH terminal into the VNC client viewer and connect to the temporary Linux installation system to begin the installation. Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.

18.3.4. Installation using a VNC listener

To connect from your temporary Linux installation system to a VNC client running on your workstation in listening mode, use the vncconnect option in your parameter file, in addition to the options vnc and optionally vncpassword. The network and firewalls must allow an IP connection from your temporary Linux installation to your workstation.
To have the temporary Linux installation system automatically connect to a VNC client, first start the client in listening mode. On Red Hat Enterprise Linux systems, use the -listen option to run vncviewer as a listener. In a terminal window, enter the command:
vncviewer -listen
Refer to Chapter 31, Installing Through VNC for details.

18.3.5. Automating the Installation with Kickstart

You can allow an installation to run unattended by using Kickstart. A Kickstart file specifies settings for an installation. Once the installation system boots, it can read a Kickstart file and carry out the installation process without any further input from a user.
On System z, this also requires a parameter file (optionally an additional configuration file under z/VM). This parameter file must contain the required network options described in Section 26.3, “Installation network parameters” and specify a kickstart file using the ks= option. The kickstart file typically resides on the network. The parameter file often also contains the options cmdline and RUNKS=1 to execute the loader without having to log in over the network with SSH (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”).
For further information and details on how to set up a kickstart file, refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File”.

18.3.5.1. Every Installation Produces a Kickstart File

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process automatically writes a Kickstart file that contains the settings for the installed system. This file is always saved as /root/anaconda-ks.cfg. You may use this file to repeat the installation with identical settings, or modify copies to specify settings for other systems.


[8] Direct Access Storage Devices (DASDs) are hard disks that allow a maximum of three partitions per device. For example, dasda can have partitions dasda1, dasda2, and dasda3.

[9] Using the SCSI-over-Fibre Channel device driver (zfcp device driver) and a switch, SCSI LUNs can be presented to Linux on System z as if they were locally attached SCSI drives.

Chapter 19. Preparing for Installation

19.1. Preparing for a Network Installation

Note

Make sure no installation DVD (or any other type of DVD or CD) is in your hosting partition's drive if you are performing a network-based installation. Having a DVD or CD in the drive might cause unexpected errors.
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation medium must be available for either a network installation (via NFS, FTP, or HTTP) or installation via local storage. Use the following steps if you are performing an NFS, FTP, or HTTP installation.
The NFS, FTP, or HTTP server to be used for installation over the network must be a separate, network-accessible server. The separate server can be a virtual machine, LPAR, or any other system (such as a Linux on POWER or x86 system). It must provide the complete contents of the installation DVD-ROM.

Note

The public directory used to access the installation files over FTP, NFS, or HTTP is mapped to local storage on the network server. For example, the local directory /var/www/inst/rhel6 on the network server can be accessed as http://network.server.com/inst/rhel6.
In the following examples, the directory on the installation staging server that will contain the installation files will be specified as /location/of/disk/space. The directory that will be made publicly available via FTP, NFS, or HTTP will be specified as /publicly/available/directory. For example, /location/of/disk/space may be a directory you create called /var/isos. /publicly/available/directory might be /var/www/html/rhel6, for an HTTP install.
In the following, you will require an ISO image. An ISO image is a file containing an exact copy of the content of a DVD. To create an ISO image from a DVD use the following command:
dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
To copy the files from the installation DVD to a Linux instance, which acts as an installation staging server, continue with either Section 19.1.1, “Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation” or Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”.

19.1.1. Preparing for FTP and HTTP installation

Extract the files from the ISO image of the installation DVD and place them in a directory that is shared over FTP or HTTP.
Next, make sure that the directory is shared via FTP or HTTP, and verify client access. Test to see whether the directory is accessible from the server itself, and then from another machine on the same subnet to which you will be installing.

19.1.2. Preparing for an NFS installation

For NFS installation it is not necessary to extract all the files from the ISO image. It is sufficient to make the ISO image itself, the install.img file, and optionally the product.img file available on the network server via NFS.
  1. Transfer the ISO image to the NFS exported directory. On a Linux system, run:
    mv /location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso /publicly/available/directory/
  2. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  3. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  4. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
  5. Ensure that the /publicly/available/directory directory is exported via NFS via an entry in /etc/exports on the network server.
    To export a directory read-only to a specific system, use:
    /publicly/available/directory client.ip.address (ro)
    To export a directory read-only to all systems, use:
    /publicly/available/directory * (ro)
  6. On the network server, start the NFS daemon (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, use /sbin/service nfs start). If NFS is already running, reload the configuration file (on a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use /sbin/service nfs reload).
  7. Be sure to test the NFS share following the directions in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Refer to your NFS documentation for details on starting and stopping the NFS server.

Note

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program has the ability to test the integrity of the installation media. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs (many of the bugs reported are actually due to improperly-burned DVDs). To use this test, type the following command at the boot: prompt:
linux mediacheck

19.2. Preparing for a Hard Drive Installation

Use this option to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on hardware systems without a DVD drive and if you do not want to access installation phase 3 and the package repository over a network.

19.2.1. Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive

Note

Hard drive installations using DASD or FCP-attached SCSI storage only work from native ext2, ext3, or ext4 partitions. If you have a file system based on devices other than native ext2, ext3, or ext4 (particularly a file system based on RAID or LVM partitions) you will not be able to use it as a source to perform a hard drive installation.
Hard drive installations use an ISO image of the installation DVD (a file that contains an exact copy of the content of the DVD), and an install.img file extracted from the ISO image. With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the installation program.
Hard drive installations use the following files:
  • an ISO image of the installation DVD. An ISO image is a file that contains an exact copy of the content of a DVD.
  • an install.img file extracted from the ISO image.
  • optionally, a product.img file extracted from the ISO image.
With these files present on a hard drive, you can choose Hard drive as the installation source when you boot the installation program (refer to Section 22.4, “Installation Method”).
Ensure that you have boot media available as described in Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer.
To prepare a DASD or FCP-attached device as an installation source, follow these steps:
  1. Obtain an ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation DVD (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). Alternatively, if you have the DVD on physical media, you can create an image of it with the following command on a Linux system:
    dd if=/dev/dvd of=/location/of/disk/space/RHEL6.iso
    where dvd refers to your DVD drive device.
  2. Transfer the ISO images to the DASD or SCSI device.
    The ISO files must be located on a hard drive that is activated in installation phase 1 (refer to Chapter 21, Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device) or in installation phase 2 (refer to Chapter 22, Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source). This is automatically possible with DASDs.
    For an FCP LUN, you must either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell provided by the installation phase 1 menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
  3. Use a SHA256 checksum program to verify that the ISO image that you copied is intact. Many SHA256 checksum programs are available for various operating systems. On a Linux system, run:
    $ sha256sum name_of_image.iso
    where name_of_image is the name of the ISO image file. The SHA256 checksum program displays a string of 64 characters called a hash. Compare this hash to the hash displayed for this particular image on the Download Software page on the Red Hat Network (refer to Chapter 1, Obtaining Red Hat Enterprise Linux). The two hashes should be identical.
  4. Copy the images/ directory within the ISO file to a directory named images/. Enter the following commands:
      mount -t iso9660 /path/to/RHEL6.iso /mnt/point -o loop,ro
      cp -pr /mnt/point/images /path/images/
      umount /mnt/point
  5. Verify that the the images/ directory contains at least the install.img file, without which installation cannot proceed. Optionally, the images/ directory should contain the product.img file, without which only the packages for a Minimal installation will be available during the package group selection stage (refer to Section 23.17, “Package Group Selection”).
  6. Make the DASD or SCSI LUN accessible to the new z/VM guest virtual machine or LPAR, and then proceed with installation. (Refer to Chapter 20, Booting (IPL) the Installer) or alternatively with Section 19.2.1.1, “Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive”.

Note — Verifying ISO images

The Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation program can test the integrity of the installation medium. It works with the DVD, hard drive ISO, and NFS ISO installation methods. We recommend that you test all installation media before starting the installation process, and before reporting any installation-related bugs. To use this test, add the mediacheck parameter to your parameter file (refer to Section 26.7, “Miscellaneous parameters”).

19.2.1.1. Preparing for Booting the Installer from a Hard Drive

If you would like to boot (IPL) the installer from a hard drive, in addition to accessing installation phase 3 and the package repository, you can optionally install the zipl boot loader on the same (or a different) disk. Be aware that zipl only supports one boot record per disk. If you have multiple partitions on a disk, they all “share” the disk's one boot record.
In the following, assume the hard drive is prepared as described in Section 19.2.1, “Accessing Installation Phase 3 and the Package Repository on a Hard Drive”, mounted under /mnt, and you do not need to preserve an existing boot record.
To prepare a hard drive to boot the installer, install the zipl boot loader on the hard drive by entering the following command:
zipl -V -t /mnt/ -i /mnt/images/kernel.img -r /mnt/images/initrd.img -p /mnt/images/generic.prm
For more details on zipl.conf, refer to the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

Warning — Accessing a previously-installed operating system

If you have an operating system installed on the disk, and you still plan to access it later on, refer the chapter on zipl in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 for how to add a new entry in the zipl boot loader (that is, in zipl.conf).

Chapter 20. Booting (IPL) the Installer

The steps to perform the initial boot (IPL) of the installer depend on the environment (either z/VM or LPAR) in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux will run. For more information on booting, see the Booting Linux chapter in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.

20.1. Installing under z/VM

When installing under z/VM, you can boot from:
  • the z/VM virtual reader
  • a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI device prepared with the zipl boot loader
  • an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Log on to the z/VM guest virtual machine chosen for the Linux installation. You can use x3270 or c3270 (from the x3270-text package in Red Hat Enterprise Linux) to log in to z/VM from other Linux systems. Alternatively, use the 3270 terminal emulator on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC). If you are working from a machine with a Windows operating system, Jolly Giant (http://www.jollygiant.com/) offers an SSL-enabled 3270 emulator. A free native Windows port of c3270 called wc3270 also exists.

Note — If your 3270 connection is interrupted

If your 3270 connection is interrupted and you cannot log in again because the previous session is still active, you can replace the old session with a new one by entering the following command on the z/VM logon screen:
logon user here
Replace user with the name of the z/VM guest virtual machine. Depending on whether an external security manager, for example RACF, is used, the logon command might vary.
If you are not already running CMS (single user operating system shipped with z/VM) in your guest, boot it now by entering the command:
#cp ipl cms
Be sure not to use CMS disks such as your A disk (often device number 0191) as installation targets. To find out which disks are in use by CMS use the following query:
query disk
You can use the following CP (z/VM Control Program, which is the z/VM hypervisor) query commands to find out about the device configuration of your z/VM guest virtual machine:
  • Query the available main memory, which is called storage in System z terminology. Your guest should have at least 512 megabytes of main memory.
    cp query virtual storage
  • Query available network devices of type:
    osa
    OSA (CHPID type OSD, real or virtual (VSWITCH or GuestLAN type QDIO), both in QDIO mode)
    hsi
    HiperSockets (CHPID type IQD, real or virtual (GuestLAN type Hipers))
    lcs
    LCS (CHPID type OSE)
    For example, to query all of the network device types mentioned above:
    cp query virtual osa
  • Query available DASDs. Only those that are flagged RW for read-write mode can be used as installation targets:
    cp query virtual dasd
  • Query available FCP channels:
    cp query virtual fcp

20.1.1. Using the z/VM Reader

Perform the following steps to boot from the z/VM reader:
  1. If necessary, add the device containing the z/VM TCP/IP tools to your CMS disk list. For example:
    cp link tcpmaint 592 592
    acc 592 fm
    Replace fm with any FILEMODE letter.
  2. Execute the command:
    ftp host
    Where host is the hostname or IP address of the FTP server that hosts the boot images (kernel.img and initrd.img).
  3. Log in and execute the following commands. Use the (repl option if you are overwriting existing kernel.img, initrd.img, generic.prm, or redhat.exec files:
    cd /location/of/install-tree/images/ 
    ascii  
    get generic.prm (repl  
    get redhat.exec (repl  
    locsite fix 80  
    binary  
    get kernel.img (repl  
    get initrd.img (repl  
    quit
  4. Optionally check whether the files were transferred correctly by using the CMS command filelist to show the received files and their format. It is important that kernel.img and initrd.img have a fixed record length format denoted by F in the Format column and a record length of 80 in the Lrecl column. For example:
    VMUSER FILELIST A0 V 169 Trunc=169 Size=6 Line=1 Col=1 Alt=0 
    Cmd Filename Filetype Fm Format Lrecl Records Blocks Date Time 
     REDHAT EXEC B1 V 22 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:40 
     GENERIC PRM B1 V 44 1 1 4/15/10 9:30:32 
     INITRD IMG B1 F 80 118545 2316 4/15/10 9:30:25 
     KERNEL IMG B1 F 80 74541 912 4/15/10 9:30:17
    Press PF3 to quit filelist and return to the CMS prompt.
  5. Finally execute the REXX script redhat.exec to boot (IPL) the installer:
    redhat

20.1.2. Using a prepared DASD

Boot from the prepared DASD and select the zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
cp ipl DASD device number loadparm boot_entry_number
Replace DASD device number with the device number of the boot device, and boot_entry_number with the zipl configuration menu for this device. For example:
cp ipl eb1c loadparm 0

20.1.3. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk

Perform the following steps to boot from a prepared FCP-attached SCSI disk:
  1. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the prepared SCSI disk in the FCP storage area network. Select the prepared zipl boot menu entry referring to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer. Use a command of the following form:
    cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun LUN bootprog boot_entry_number
    Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the storage system and LUN with the LUN of the disk. The 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight digits each. For example:
    cp set loaddev portname 50050763 050b073d lun 40204011 00000000 bootprog 0
  2. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
    query loaddev
  3. IPL the FCP device connected with the storage system containing the disk with the command:
    cp ipl FCP_device 
    For example:
    cp ipl fc00

20.1.4.  Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive

This requires a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected to an FCP adapter in your System z. The FCP adapter must be configured and available under z/VM.
  1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
  2. Configure the SCSI boot loader of z/VM to access the DVD drive in the FCP storage area network and specify 1 for the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD. Use a command of the following form:
    cp set loaddev portname WWPN lun FCP_LUN bootprog 1
    Replace WWPN with the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge and FCP_LUN with the LUN of the DVD drive. The 16-digit hexadecimal numbers must be split into two pairs of eight characters each. For example:
    cp set loaddev portname 20010060 eb1c0103 lun 00010000 00000000 bootprog 1
  3. Optionally, confirm your settings with the command:
    cp query loaddev
  4. IPL on the FCP device connected with the FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
    cp ipl FCP_device
    For example:
    cp ipl fc00

20.2. Installing in an LPAR

When installing in a logical partition (LPAR), you can boot from:
  • an FTP server
  • the DVD drive of the HMC or SE
  • a DASD or an FCP-attached SCSI drive prepared with the zipl boot loader
  • an FCP-attached SCSI DVD drive
Perform these common steps first:
  1. Log in on the IBM System z Hardware Management Console (HMC) or the Support Element (SE) as a user with sufficient privileges to install a new operating system to an LPAR. The SYSPROG user is recommended.
  2. Select Images, then select the LPAR to which you wish to install. Use the arrows in the frame on the right side to navigate to the CPC Recovery menu.
  3. Double-click Operating System Messages to show the text console on which Linux boot messages will appear and potentially user input will be required. Refer to the chapter on booting Linux in Linux on System z Device Drivers, Features, and Commands on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 and the Hardware Management Console Operations Guide, order number [SC28-6857], for details.
Continue with the procedure for your installation source.

20.2.1. Using an FTP Server

  1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
  2. In the dialog box that follows, select FTP Source, and enter the following information: Host Computer: Hostname or IP address of the FTP server you wish to install from (for example, ftp.redhat.com) User ID: Your user name on the FTP server (or anonymous) Password: Your password (use your email address if you are logging in as anonymous) Account (optional): Leave this field empty File location (optional): Directory on the FTP server holding Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z (for example, /rhel/s390x/)
  3. Click Continue.
  4. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins and click Continue.

20.2.2. Using the HMC or SE DVD Drive

  1. Double-click Load from CD-ROM, DVD, or Server.
  2. In the dialog box that follows, select Local CD-ROM / DVD then click Continue.
  3. In the dialog that follows, keep the default selection of generic.ins then click Continue.

20.2.3. Using a prepared DASD

  1. Double-click Load.
  2. In the dialog box that follows, select Normal as the Load type.
  3. As Load address fill in the device number of the DASD.
  4. As Load parameter fill in the number corresponding the the zipl boot menu entry that you prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
  5. Click the OK button.

20.2.4. Using a prepared FCP-attached SCSI Disk

  1. Double-click Load.
  2. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
  3. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the SCSI disk.
  4. As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the storage system containing the disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
  5. As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the disk as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
  6. As Boot program selector fill in the number corresponding the the zipl boot menu entry that you prepared for booting the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installer.
  7. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system specific load parameters empty.
  8. Click the OK button.

20.2.5. Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive

This requires to have a SCSI DVD drive attached to an FCP-to-SCSI bridge which is in turn connected to an FCP adapter in your System z machine. The FCP adapter has to be configured and available in your LPAR.
  1. Insert your Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD into the DVD drive.
  2. Double-click Load.
  3. In the dialog box that follows, select SCSI as the Load type.
  4. As Load address fill in the device number of the FCP channel connected with the FCP-to-SCSI bridge.
  5. As World wide port name fill in the WWPN of the FCP-to-SCSI bridge as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
  6. As Logical unit number fill in the LUN of the DVD drive as a 16-digit hexadecimal number.
  7. As Boot program selector fill in the number 1 to select the boot entry on the Red Hat Enterprise Linux for System z DVD.
  8. Leave the Boot record logical block address as 0 and the Operating system specific load parameters empty.
  9. Click the OK button.

Chapter 21. Installation Phase 1: Configuring a Network Device

After the kernel boot, you will configure one network device using the linuxrc program. This network device is needed to complete the installation. If you are installing interactively (with the default parameter file generic.prm), you will be asked questions about your network. It is a good idea to have your data ready in the form of a datasheet or similar. If you want to automate this step, supply the information for each option in your parameter file or CMS configuration file.
As an example, let us look at how to configure an OSA network adapter under z/VM. When linuxrc starts, you see the following message:
Starting the zSeries initrd to configure networking. Version is 1.2 
Starting udev...
Network devices are sensed and listed. The list of devices depends on the cio_ignore kernel parameter used. If no devices are found because of cio_ignore, as in the example below, you can clear the list of ignored devices. Note that this might take some time and result in a long list when there are many devices, such as on an LPAR.
Scanning for available network devices... 
Autodetection found 0 devices. 
Note: There is a device blacklist active! (Clearing might take long) 
c) clear blacklist, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell: 
c 
Clearing device blacklist... 
Scanning for available network devices... 
Autodetection found 14 devices. 
  
NUM CARD CU CHPID TYPE DRIVER IF DEVICES 
 1 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 00 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f500,0.0.f501,0.0.f502 
 2 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 01 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f503,0.0.f504,0.0.f505 
 3 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 02 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1010,0.0.1011,0.0.1012 
 4 HiperSockets 1731/05 03 IQD qeth hsi 0.0.1013,0.0.1014,0.0.1015 
 5 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 04 OSD qeth eth 0.0.1017,0.0.1018,0.0.1019 
 6 CTC adapter 3088/08 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1000,0.0.1001 
 7 escon channel 3088/1f 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1002,0.0.1003 
 8 ficon channel 3088/1e 12 ? ctcm ctc 0.0.1004,0.0.1005 
 9 OSA (QDIO) 1731/01 76 OSD qeth eth 0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 
 10 LCS OSA 3088/60 8a OSE lcs eth 0.0.1240,0.0.1241 
 11 HiperSockets 1731/05 fb IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8024,0.0.8025,0.0.8026 
 12 HiperSockets 1731/05 fc IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8124,0.0.8125,0.0.8126 
 13 HiperSockets 1731/05 fd IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8224,0.0.8225,0.0.8226 
 14 HiperSockets 1731/05 fe IQD qeth hsi 0.0.8324,0.0.8325,0.0.8326 
  
<num>) use config, m) manual config, r) rescan, s) shell:
Enter the number of the configuration you want to use, for example 9. Selecting from the table provides the installer with information for the type of network device and the device addresses for its subchannels. Alternatively, you can enter m and proceed to enter the network type (qeth), the read, write, data channels, and the OSA port. Accept defaults by pressing Enter; under z/VM you might need to press Enter twice.
m 
  
* NOTE: To enter default or empty values press enter twice. * 
  
  
Network type (qeth, lcs, ctc, ? for help). Default is qeth: 
qeth 
  
Read,write,data channel (e.g. 0.0.0300,0.0.0301,0.0.0302 or ? for help). 
0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 
  
Portname (1..8 characters, or ? for help). Default is no portname: 
  
  
Relative port number for OSA (0, 1, or ? for help). Default is 0: 
  
  
Layer mode (0 for layer3, 1 for layer2, or ? for help). Default is 1: 
  
Activating network device... 
Detected: OSA card in OSD mode, Gigabit Ethernet 
Unique MAC address (e.g. 02:00:00:00:00:00, ? for help). Default is 02:00:00:AB:C9:81:
Then questions pertaining to your Linux instance are displayed:
 Hostname of your new Linux guest (FQDN e.g. s390.redhat.com or ? for help): 
host.subdomain.domain 
 
IPv4 address / IPv6 addr. (e.g. 10.0.0.2 / 2001:0DB8:: or ? for help) 
10.0.0.42 
  
IPv4 netmask or CIDR prefix (e.g. 255.255.255.0 or 1..32 or ? for help). Default is 255.0.0.0: 
24 
  
IPv4 address of your default gateway or ? for help: 
10.0.0.1 
Trying to reach gateway 10.0.0.1... 
  
IPv4 addresses of DNS servers (separated by colons ':' or ? for help): 
10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1 
Trying to reach DNS servers... 
  
DNS search domains (separated by colons ':' or ? for help): 
subdomain.domain:domain 
  
DASD range (e.g. 200-203,205 or ? for help). Default is autoprobing: 
eb1c 
Activated DASDs: 
0.0.eb1c(ECKD) dasda : active, blocksize: 4096, 1803060 blocks, 7043 MB

Important — you must define a DASD

The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none. This satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while resulting in a SCSI-only environment.
When you define the DASD as none, you receive an error message such as:
Incorrect format for lower bound of DASD range none: none
It is safe to disregard this error message; installation proceeds as normal.
If you make a mistake, the dialog either notices the error and asks you to re-enter the parameter, or you can go back later to restart the dialog:
 Incorrect ... (<OPTION-NAME>): 
0) redo this parameter, 1) continue, 2) restart dialog, 3) halt, 4) shell
When you restart the dialog, it remembers what you entered before:
 Network type 
0) default is previous "qeth", 1) new value, ?) help
At the end of the configuration, you see the message Initial configuration completed:
 Initial configuration completed. 
  
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
You can now check your network configuration by entering n:
 n 
eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 02:00:00:AB:C9:81 
 inet addr:10.0.0.42 Bcast:10.0.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 
 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1 
 RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 
 TX packets:4 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 
 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
 RX bytes:3334 (3.2 KiB) TX bytes:336 (336.0 b) 
  
lo Link encap:Local Loopback 
 inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 
 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 
 RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 
 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 
 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
 RX bytes:0 (0.0 b) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) 
  
Kernel IP routing table 
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface 
127.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 UH 0 0 0 lo 
10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0 
0.0.0.0 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth0 
  
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
If you want to change something, enter r to restart the dialog. To show the parameters as specified in a parameter or configuration file or interactively enter p. You can then copy the output from your terminal and paste it into an editor to save it to disk on your local workstation. You can use the copy as a template for a parameter or configuration file for future installations:
 p 
  
NETTYPE=qeth 
IPADDR=10.0.0.42 
NETMASK=255.255.255.0 
GATEWAY=10.0.0.1 
HOSTNAME=host.subdomain.domain 
SUBCHANNELS=0.0.f5f0,0.0.f5f1,0.0.f5f2 
LAYER2=1 
MACADDR=02:00:00:AB:C9:81 
PORTNAME=OSAPORT 
DNS=10.1.2.3:10.3.2.1 
SEARCHDNS=subdomain.domain:domain 
DASD=eb1c
 
c) continue, p) parm file/configuration, n) network state, r) restart, s) shell
Again, to change something, restart the dialog with r. Finally, if all is in order, enter c to continue:
 c 
  
Starting sshd to allow login over the network. 
  
Connect now to 10.0.0.42 and log in as user install to start the installation. 
E.g. using: ssh -x install@10.0.0.42 
You may log in as the root user to start an interactive shell.
The preliminary network setup is now complete and the installer starts an SSH daemon. You can log into your Linux instance over SSH. If you are using RUNKS=1 with kickstart and cmdline mode, linuxrc automatically starts the loader.

21.1. A Note on Terminals

During the installation, the installation program displays messages on a line-mode terminal. This is the HMC Operating System Messages applet if you install under LPAR, or a 3270 terminal if you install under z/VM.
Linuxrc provides a rescue shell on the line-mode terminal. Press the Enter key (twice under z/VM) to start the shell. You cannot use full-screen applications such as the vi editor on the line-mode terminal. Switch to line-mode based editors such as ed, ex, or sed to edit text files if necessary.
Be aware that long-running commands might not be interruptible with the escape sequence Ctrl+C. Call commands with options that make them return in time voluntarily. The shell on the 3270 terminal is available throughout the whole installation process until the point where the system needs to reboot.
Once the shell has been provided, you may exit with an error level of zero to get a new shell instance replacing the old one, or you may exit with an error level different from zero to force a shutdown of the installation system.
Connect to the installed system using user root to get a root shell without automatically starting the installer. For problem determination, you might connect with many ssh sessions.

Chapter 22. Installation Phase 2: Configuring Language and Installation Source

Before the graphical installation program starts, you need to configure the language and installation source.
By default, if you are installing interactively (with the default parameter file generic.prm) the loader program to select language and installation source starts in text mode. In your new ssh session, the following message is displayed:
Welcome to the anaconda install environment 1.2 for zSeries

22.1. Non-interactive Line-Mode Installation

If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Section 32.3, “Creating the Kickstart File”, the loader starts up with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary information must be provided in the kickstart file. The installer does not allow user interaction and stops if there is unspecified installation information.

22.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

Both the loader and later anaconda use a screen-based interface that includes most of the on-screen widgets commonly found on graphical user interfaces. Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, and Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, illustrate widgets that appear on screens during the installation process.
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup
Figure 22.1. Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup

Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language
Figure 22.2. Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language

  • Window — Windows (usually referred to as dialogs in this manual) appear on your screen throughout the installation process. At times, one window may overlay another; in these cases, you can only interact with the window on top. When you are finished in that window, it disappears, allowing you to continue working in the window underneath.
  • Checkbox — Checkboxes allow you to select or deselect a feature. The box displays either an asterisk (selected) or a space (unselected). When the cursor is within a checkbox, press Space to select or deselect a feature.
  • Text Input — Text input lines are regions where you can enter information required by the installation program. When the cursor rests on a text input line, you may enter and/or edit information on that line.
  • Text Widget — Text widgets are regions of the screen for the display of text. At times, text widgets may also contain other widgets, such as checkboxes. If a text widget contains more information than can be displayed in the space reserved for it, a scroll bar appears; if you position the cursor within the text widget, you can then use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through all the information available. Your current position is shown on the scroll bar by a # character, which moves up and down the scroll bar as you scroll.
  • Scroll Bar — Scroll bars appear on the side or bottom of a window to control which part of a list or document is currently in the window's frame. The scroll bar makes it easy to move to any part of a file.
  • Button Widget — Button widgets are the primary method of interacting with the installation program. You progress through the windows of the installation program by navigating these buttons, using the Tab and Enter keys. Buttons can be selected when they are highlighted.
  • Cursor — Although not a widget, the cursor is used to select (and interact with) a particular widget. As the cursor is moved from widget to widget, it may cause the widget to change color, or the cursor itself may only appear positioned in or next to the widget. In Figure 22.1, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in URL Setup, the cursor is positioned on the OK button. Figure 22.2, “Installation Program Widgets as seen in Choose a Language, shows the cursor on the Edit button.

22.2.1. Using the Keyboard to Navigate

Navigation through the installation dialogs is performed through a simple set of keystrokes. To move the cursor, use the Left, Right, Up, and Down arrow keys. Use Tab, and Shift-Tab to cycle forward or backward through each widget on the screen. Along the bottom, most screens display a summary of available cursor positioning keys.
To "press" a button, position the cursor over the button (using Tab, for example) and press Space or Enter. To select an item from a list of items, move the cursor to the item you wish to select and press Enter. To select an item with a checkbox, move the cursor to the checkbox and press Space to select an item. To deselect, press Space a second time.
Pressing F12 accepts the current values and proceeds to the next dialog; it is equivalent to pressing the OK button.

Warning

Unless a dialog box is waiting for your input, do not press any keys during the installation process (doing so may result in unpredictable behavior).

22.3. Language Selection

Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select a language to use during the installation process (refer to Figure 22.3, “Language Selection”). With your selected language highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice. You can automate this choice in the parameter file with the parameter lang= (refer to Section 26.5, “Loader parameters”) or with the kickstart command lang (refer to Section 28.4, “Automating the Installation with Kickstart”).
The language you select here will become the default language for the operating system once it is installed. Selecting the appropriate language also helps target your time zone configuration later in the installation. The installation program tries to define the appropriate time zone based on what you specify on this screen.
To add support for additional languages, customize the installation at the package selection stage. For more information, refer to Section 23.17.2, “ Customizing the Software Selection ”.
Language Selection
Language selection screen.
Figure 22.3. Language Selection

Once you select the appropriate language, click Next to continue.

22.4. Installation Method

Use the arrow keys on your keyboard to select an installation method (refer to Figure 22.4, “Installation Method”). With your selected method highlighted, press the Tab key to move to the OK button and press the Enter key to confirm your choice.
Installation Method
Installation method screen.
Figure 22.4. Installation Method

22.4.1. Installing from DVD

To install Red Hat Enterprise Linux from a DVD, place the DVD in your DVD drive and boot your system from the DVD as described in Section 20.1.4, “ Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for z/VM or Section 20.2.5, “Using an FCP-attached SCSI DVD Drive” for LPAR.
The installation program then probes your system and attempts to identify your DVD-ROM drive. It starts by looking for a SCSI DVD-ROM drive.

Note

To abort the installation process at this time, reboot your machine and then eject the boot media. You can safely cancel the installation at any point before the Write changes to disk screen. Refer to Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk” for more information.
If the DVD drive is found and the driver loaded, the installer presents you with the option to perform a media check on the DVD. This takes some time, and you may opt to skip over this step. However, if you later encounter problems with the installer, you should reboot and perform the media check before calling for support. From the media check dialog, continue to the next stage of the installation process (refer to Section 23.5, “Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux”).

22.4.2. Installing from a Hard Drive

The Select Partition screen applies only if you are installing from a disk partition (that is, you selected Hard Drive in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog allows you to name the disk partition and directory from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=hd boot option, you already specified a partition.
Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation
Selecting partition dialog for a hard drive installation.
Figure 22.5. Selecting Partition Dialog for Hard Drive Installation

Select the partition containing the ISO files from the list of available partitions. DASD names begin with /dev/dasd. Each individual drive has its own letter, for example /dev/dasda or /dev/sda. Each partition on a drive is numbered, for example /dev/dasda1 or /dev/sda1.
For an FCP LUN, you would have to either boot (IPL) from the same FCP LUN or use the rescue shell provided by the linuxrc menus to manually activate the FCP LUN holding the ISOs as described in Section 25.2.1, “Dynamically activating an FCP LUN”.
Also specify the Directory holding images. Enter the full directory path from the drive that contains the ISO image files. The following table shows some examples of how to enter this information:
Table 22.1. Location of ISO images for different partition types
File system Mount point Original path to files Directory to use
ext2, ext3, ext4 /home /home/user1/RHEL6 /user1/RHEL6

If the ISO images are in the root (top-level) directory of a partition, enter a /. If the ISO images are located in a subdirectory of a mounted partition, enter the name of the directory holding the ISO images within that partition. For example, if the partition on which the ISO images is normally mounted as /home/, and the images are in /home/new/, you would enter /new/.

Use a leading slash

An entry without a leading slash may cause the installation to fail.

22.4.3. Performing a Network Installation

The installation program is network-aware and can use network settings for a number of functions. On System z, installation phases 2 and 3 take over the network configuration values specified previously either interactively or by means of a parameter or configuration file in installation phase 1. You can also instruct the installation program to consult additional software repositories later in the process.

22.4.4. Installing via NFS

The NFS dialog applies only if you selected NFS Image in the Installation Method dialog. If you used the repo=nfs boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the domain name or IP address of your NFS server. For example, if you are installing from a host named eastcoast in the domain example.com, enter eastcoast.example.com in the NFS Server field.
Next, enter the name of the exported directory. If you followed the setup described in Section 19.1.2, “Preparing for an NFS installation”, you would enter the directory /export/directory/.
This dialog also allows you to specify NFS mount options. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a list of common NFS mount options, or consult the man pages for mount and nfs for a comprehensive list of options.
If the NFS server is exporting a mirror of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation tree, enter the directory which contains the root of the installation tree. You will enter an Installation Key later on in the process which will determine which subdirectories are used to install from. If everything was specified properly, a message appears indicating that the installation program for Red Hat Enterprise Linux is running.
NFS Setup Dialog
NFS setup dialog.
Figure 22.6. NFS Setup Dialog

If the NFS server is exporting the ISO image of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, enter the directory which contains the ISO image.

22.4.5. Installing via FTP or HTTP

Important — you must specify the protocol

When you provide a URL to an installation source, you must explicitly specify http:// or ftp:// as the protocol.
The URL dialog applies only if you are installing from a FTP or HTTP server (if you selected URL in the Installation Method dialog). This dialog prompts you for information about the FTP or HTTP server from which you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If you used the repo=ftp or repo=http boot option, you already specified a server and path.
Enter the name or IP address of the FTP or HTTP site from which you are installing, and the name of the directory that contains the /images directory for your architecture. For example:
/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
Specify the address of a proxy server, and if necessary, provide a port number, username, and password. If everything was specified properly, a message box appears indicating that files are being retrieved from the server.
If your FTP or HTTP server requires user authentication, specify user and password as part of the URL as follows:
{ftp|http}://<user>:<password>@<hostname>[:<port>]/<directory>/
For example:
http://install:rhel6pw@name.example.com/mirrors/redhat/rhel-6/Server/s390x/
URL Setup Dialog
URL setup dialog.
Figure 22.7. URL Setup Dialog

22.5. Verifying Media

The DVD offers an option to verify the integrity of the media. Recording errors sometimes occur while producing DVD media. An error in the data for package chosen in the installation program can cause the installation to abort. To minimize the chances of data errors affecting the installation, verify the media before installing.
If the verification succeeds, the installation process proceeds normally. If the process fails, create a new DVD using the ISO image you downloaded earlier.

22.6. Retrieving Phase 3 of the Installation Program

The loader then retrieves phase 3 of the installation program from the network into its RAM disk. This may take some time.
Retrieving phase 3 of the installation program
The screen displays a progress bar.
Figure 22.8. Retrieving phase 3 of the installation program

Chapter 23. Installation Phase 3: Installing using anaconda

This chapter describes an installation using the graphical user interface of anaconda.

23.1. The Non-interactive Line-Mode Text Installation Program Output

If the cmdline option was specified as boot option in your parameter file (Refer to Section 26.6, “Parameters for kickstart installations”) or in your kickstart file (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations), anaconda starts with line-mode oriented text output. In this mode, all necessary information must be provided in the kickstart file. The installer will not allow user interaction and stops if there is unspecified installation information.

23.2. The Text Mode Installation Program User Interface

While text mode installations are not explicitly documented, those using the text mode installation program can easily follow the GUI installation instructions. However, because text mode presents you with a simpler, more streamlined insatallation process, certain options that are available in graphical mode are not also available in text mode. These differences are noted in the description of the installation process in this guide, and include:
  • Interactively activating FCP LUNs
  • configuring advanced storage methods such as LVM, RAID, FCoE, zFCP, and iSCSI.
  • customizing the partition layout
  • customizing the bootloader layout
  • selecting packages during installation
  • configuring the installed system with Firstboot

23.3. The Graphical Installation Program User Interface

If you have used a graphical user interface (GUI) before, you are already familiar with this process; use your mouse to navigate the screens, click buttons, or enter text fields.
You can also navigate through the installation using the keyboard. The Tab key allows you to move around the screen, the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll through lists, + and - keys expand and collapse lists, while Space and Enter selects or removes from selection a highlighted item. You can also use the Alt+X key command combination as a way of clicking on buttons or making other screen selections, where X is replaced with any underlined letter appearing within that screen.

23.4. Configure the Install Terminal

If you logged in with ssh and X11 forwarding, anaconda starts immediately with its graphical user interface.
If you did not set the display= variable and do not use X11 forwarding, anaconda gives you the choice of starting VNC or text mode.
Choosing VNC or text mode
VNC and text mode options in anaconda
Figure 23.1. Choosing VNC or text mode

If you choose VNC, you will be asked for a password or you can choose to use VNC without a password. If you use a password, make a note of the password for future reference. The VNC server then starts.
The VNC server starts
The VNC server prompts you to supply a password.
Figure 23.2. The VNC server starts

Now open a connection to the IP address of your z/VM guest virtual machine using a VNC client. Authenticate to the VNC server with the previously entered password.

23.5. Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux

The Welcome screen does not prompt you for any input. From this screen you can access the Release Notes for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 by clicking on the Release Notes button.
Welcome to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
Click on the Next button to continue.

23.6. Storage Devices

You can install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a large variety of storage devices. For System z, select Specialized Storage Devices
Storage devices
Select specialized storage devices with a radio button
Figure 23.3. Storage devices

Basic Storage Devices
This option does not apply to System z.
Specialized Storage Devices
Select Specialized Storage Devices to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux on the following storage devices:
  • Direct access storage devices (DASDs)
  • Multipath devices such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUN with multiple paths
  • Storage area networks (SANs) such as FCP-attachable SCSI LUNs with a single path
Use the Specialized Storage Devices option to configure Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) and FCoE (Fiber Channel over Ethernet) connections.

23.6.1.  The Storage Devices Selection Screen

The storage devices selection screen displays all storage devices to which anaconda has access.
Devices are grouped under the following tabs:
Basic Devices
Basic storage devices directly connected to the local system, such as hard disk drives and solid-state drives. On System z, this contains activated DASDs.
Firmware RAID
Storage devices attached to a firmware RAID controller. This does not apply to System z.
Multipath Devices
Storage devices accessible through more than one path, such as through multiple SCSI controllers or Fiber Channel ports on the same system.
Other SAN Devices
Any other devices available on a storage area network (SAN) such as FCP LUNs attached over one single path.
Select storage devices — Basic Devices
The Basic Devices tab
Figure 23.4. Select storage devices — Basic Devices

Select storage devices — Multipath Devices
The Multipath Devices tab
Figure 23.5. Select storage devices — Multipath Devices

Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices
The Other SAN Devices tab
Figure 23.6. Select storage devices — Other SAN Devices

The storage devices selection screen also contains a Search tab that allows you to filter storage devices either by their World Wide Identifier (WWID) or by the port, target, or logical unit number (LUN) at which they are accessed.
The Storage Devices Search Tab
The tab contains a drop-down menu to select between searching by port, target, and LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values) and searching by WWID (with a corresponding text box for this value).
Figure 23.7. The Storage Devices Search Tab

The tab contains a drop-down menu to select searching by port, target, WWID, or LUN (with corresponding text boxes for these values). Searching by WWID or LUN requires additional values in the corresponding text box.
Each tab presents a list of devices detected by anaconda, with information about the device to help you to identify it. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. For example, the menu on the Multipath Devices tab allows you to specify any of WWID, Capacity, Vendor, Interconnect, and Paths to include among the details presented for each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Selecting Columns
The drop-down menu in its expanded state
Figure 23.8. Selecting Columns

Each device is presented on a separate row, with a checkbox to its left. Click the checkbox to make a device available during the installation process, or click the radio button at the left of the column headings to select or deselect all the devices listed in a particular screen. Later in the installation process, you can choose to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux onto any of the devices selected here, and can choose to automatically mount any of the other devices selected here as part of the installed system.
Note that the devices that you select here are not automatically erased by the installation process. Selecting a device on this screen does not, in itself, place data stored on the device at risk. Note also that any devices that you do not select here to form part of the installed system can be added to the system after installation by modifying the /etc/fstab file.
when you have selected the storage devices to make available during installation, click Next and proceed to Section 23.7, “Setting the Hostname”

23.6.1.1. DASD low-level formatting

Any DASDs used must be low-level formatted. The installer detects this and lists the DASDs that need formatting.
If any of the DASDs specified interactively in linuxrc or in a parameter or configuration file are not yet low-level formatted, the following confirmation dialog appears:
Unformatted DASD Devices Found
The installer offers to initialize unformatted DASDs.
Figure 23.9. Unformatted DASD Devices Found

To automatically allow low-level formatting of unformatted online DASDs specify the kickstart command zerombr. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations for more details.

23.6.1.2.  Advanced Storage Options

From this screen you can configure an iSCSI (SCSI over TCP/IP) target or FCP LUNs. Refer to Appendix B, ISCSI disks for an introduction to iSCSI.
Advanced Storage Options
Advanced Storage Options.
Figure 23.10. Advanced Storage Options

23.6.1.2.1.  Configure iSCSI Parameters
To configure an ISCSI target invoke the 'Configure ISCSI Parameters' dialog by selecting 'Add ISCSI target' and clicking on the 'Add Drive' button. Fill in the details for the ISCSI target IP and provide a unique ISCSI initiator name to identify this system. If the ISCSI target uses CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) for authentication, enter the CHAP username and password. If your enviroment uses 2-way CHAP (also called "Mutual CHAP"), also enter the reverse CHAP username and password. Click the 'Add target' button to attempt connection to the ISCSI target using this information.
Configure ISCSI Parameters
Configure ISCSI Parameters.
Figure 23.11. Configure ISCSI Parameters

Note that you will be able to reattempt with a different ISCSI target IP should you enter it incorrectly, but to change the ISCSI initiator name you will need to restart the installation.
23.6.1.2.2. FCP Devices
FCP devices enable IBM System z to use SCSI devices rather than, or in addition to, DASD devices. FCP devices provide a switched fabric topology that enables System z systems to use SCSI LUNs as disk devices in addition to traditional DASD devices.
IBM System z requires that any FCP device be entered manually (either in the installation program interactively, or specified as unique parameter entries in the parameter or CMS configuration file) for the installation program to activate FCP LUNs. The values entered here are unique to each site in which they are set up.
Notes
  • Interactive creation of an FCP device is only possible in graphical mode. It is not possible to interactively configure an FCP device in a text-only install.
  • Each value entered should be verified as correct, as any mistakes made may cause the system not to operate properly. Use only lower-case letters in hex values.
  • For more information on these values, refer to the hardware documentation check with the system administrator who set up the network for this system.
To configure a Fiber Channel Protocol SCSI device, select Add ZFCP LUN and click Add Drive. In the Add FCP device dialog, fill in the details for the 16-bit device number, 64-bit World Wide Port Number (WWPN) and 64-bit FCP LUN. Click the Add button to connect to the FCP device using this information.
Add FCP Device
Add FCP device.
Figure 23.12. Add FCP Device

The newly added device should then be present and usable in the storage device selection screen on the Multipath Devices tab, if you have activated more than one path to the same LUN, or on Other SAN Devices, if you have activated only one path to the LUN.

Important — you must define a DASD

The installer requires the definition of a DASD. For a SCSI-only installation, enter none as the parameter interactively during phase 1 of an interactive installation, or add DASD=none in the parameter or CMS configuration file. This satisfies the requirement for a defined DASD parameter, while resulting in a SCSI-only environment.
When you define the DASD as none, you receive an error message such as:
Incorrect format for lower bound of DASD range none: none
It is safe to disregard this error message; installation proceeds as normal.

23.7. Setting the Hostname

Setup prompts you to supply a host name for this computer, either as a fully-qualified domain name (FQDN) in the format hostname.domainname or as a short host name in the format hostname. Many networks have a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service that automatically supplies connected systems with a domain name. To allow the DHCP service to assign the domain name to this machine, specify the short host name only.

Valid Hostnames

You may give your system any name provided that the full hostname is unique. The hostname may include letters, numbers and hyphens.
Change the default setting localhost.localdomain to a unique hostname for each of your Linux instances.
Setting the hostname
Setting the hostname
Figure 23.13. Setting the hostname

23.7.1. Edit Network Connections

Note

To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network Administration Tool.
Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
The Network Administration Tool is now deprecated and will be replaced by NetworkManager during the lifetime of Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.
Usually, the network connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 does not need to be modified during the rest of the installation. You cannot add a new connection on System z because the network subchannels need to be grouped and set online beforehand, and this is currently only done in installation phase 1. To change the existing network connection, click the button Configure Network. The Network Connections dialog appears that allows you to configure network connections for the system, not all of which are relevant to System z.
Network Connections
Configuring network connections.
Figure 23.14. Network Connections

All network connections on System z are listed in the Wired tab. By default this contains the connection configured earlier in installation phase 1 and is either eth0 (OSA, LCS), or hsi0 (HiperSockets). Note that on System z you cannot add a new connection here. To modify an existing connection, select a row in the list and click the Edit button. A dialog box appears with a set of tabs appropriate to wired connections, as described below.
The most important tabs on System z are Wired and IPv4 Settings.
When you have finished editing network settings, click Apply to activate your changes. Note that re-configuring your network settings might require you to re-connect using the new settings.

23.7.1.1. Options common to all types of connection

Certain configuration options are common to all connection types.
Specify a name for the connection in the Connection name name field.
Select Start automatically to start the connection automatically when the system boots.
Select Available to all users to make the connection available to all users.

23.7.1.2. The Wired tab

Use the Wired tab to specify or change the media access control (MAC) address for the network adapter, and either set the maximum transmission unit (MTU, in bytes) that can pass through the interface.
The Wired tab
The Wired tab
Figure 23.15. The Wired tab

23.7.1.3. The 802.1x Security tab

Use the 802.1x Security tab to configure 802.1X port-based network access control (PNAC). Select Use 802.1X security for this connection to enable access control, then specify details of your network. The configuration options include:
Authentication
Choose one of the following methods of authentication:
  • TLS for Transport Layer Security
  • Tunneled TLS for Tunneled Transport Layer Security, otherwise known as TTLS, or EAP-TTLS
  • Protected EAP (PEAP) for Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
Identity
Provide the identity of this server.
User certificate
Browse to a personal X.509 certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
CA certificate
Browse to a X.509 certificate authority certificate file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) or Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM).
Private key
Browse to a private key file encoded with Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER), Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), or the Personal Information Exchange Syntax Standard (PKCS#12).
Private key password
The password for the private key specified in the Private key field. Select Show password to make the password visible as you type it.
The 802.1x Security tab
The 802.1x Security tab
Figure 23.16. The 802.1x Security tab

23.7.1.4. The IPv4 Settings tab

Use the IPv4 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv4 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
The address, netmask, gateway, DNS servers and DNS search suffix for an IPv4 connection were configured during installation phase 1 or reflect the following parameters in the parameter file or configuration file: IPADDR, NETMASK, GATEWAY, DNS, SEARCHDNS (Refer to Section 26.3, “Installation network parameters”).
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Automatic (DHCP)
IPv4 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic (DHCP) addresses only
The IPv4 address, netmask, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv4 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address in the 169.254/16 range is assigned to the interface.
Shared to other computers
The system is configured to provide network access to other computers. The interface is assigned an address in the 10.42.x.1/24 range, a DHCP server and DNS server are started, and the interface is connected to the default network connection on the system with network address translation (NAT).
Disabled
IPv4 is disabled for this connection.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv4 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv6-enabled network if IPv4 configuration fails but IPv6 configuration succeeds.
The IPv4 Settings tab
The IPv4 Settings tab
Figure 23.17. The IPv4 Settings tab

23.7.1.4.1. Editing IPv4 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv4 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog
Figure 23.18. The Editing IPv4 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Ignore automatically obtained routes to make the interface use only the routes specified for it here.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

23.7.1.5. The IPv6 Settings tab

Use the IPv6 Settings tab tab to configure the IPv6 parameters for the previously selected network connection.
Use the Method drop-down menu to specify which settings the system should attempt to obtain from a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) service running on the network. Choose from the following options:
Ignore
IPv6 is ignored for this connection.
Automatic
IPv6 parameters are configured by the DHCP service on the network.
Automatic, addresses only
The IPv6 address, prefix, and gateway address are configured by the DHCP service on the network, but DNS servers and search domains must be configured manually.
Manual
IPv6 parameters are configured manually for a static configuration.
Link-Local Only
A link-local address with the fe80::/10 prefix is assigned to the interface.
If you selected a a method that requires you to supply manual parameters, enter details of the IP address for this interface, the netmask, and the gateway in the Addresses field. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or remove addresses. Enter a comma-separated list of DNS servers in the DNS servers field, and a comma-separated list of domains in the Search domains field for any domains that you want to include in name server lookups.
Optionally, enter a name for this network connection in the DHCP client ID field. This name must be unique on the subnet. When you assign a meaningful DHCP client ID to a connection, it is easy to identify this connection when troubleshooting network problems.
Deselect the Require IPv6 addressing for this connection to complete check box to allow the system to make this connection on an IPv4-enabled network if IPv6 configuration fails but IPv4 configuration succeeds.
The IPv6 Settings tab
The IPv6 Settings tab
Figure 23.19. The IPv6 Settings tab

23.7.1.5.1. Editing IPv6 routes
Red Hat Enterprise Linux configures a number of routes automatically based on the IP addresses of a device. To edit additional routes, click the Routes button. The Editing IPv6 routes dialog appears.
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog
Figure 23.20. The Editing IPv6 Routes dialog

Click Add to add the IP address, netmask, gateway address, and metric for a new static route.
Select Use this connection only for resources on its network to restrict connections only to the local network.

23.8. Time Zone Configuration

Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world.
Specify a time zone even if you plan to use NTP (Network Time Protocol) to maintain the accuracy of the system clock.
From here there are two ways for you to select your time zone:
  • Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city (represented by a yellow dot). A red X appears indicating your selection.
  • You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection.
Configuring the Time Zone
Time zone configuration screen.
Figure 23.21. Configuring the Time Zone

Select System clock uses UTC. The system clock is a piece of hardware on your computer system. Red Hat Enterprise Linux uses the timezone setting to determine the offset between the local time and UTC on the system clock. This behavior is standard for systems that use UNIX, Linux, and similar operating systems.
Click Next to proceed.

Note

To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.
Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig.

23.9. Set the Root Password

Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system.

Note

The root user (also known as the superuser) has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.
Root Password
Setting your root password.
Figure 23.22. Root Password

Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and use the su command to change to root only when you need to perform tasks that require superuser authorization. These basic rules minimize the changes of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system.

Note

To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter. Then, enter the root password and press Enter.
The installation program prompts you to set a root password[10] for your system. You cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password.
The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program asks you to enter them again.
You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess. Your name, your phone number, qwerty, password, root, 123456, and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aard387vark or 420BMttNT, for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create.

Note

Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual. Using one of these passwords could be considered a security risk.
To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password Tool.
Type the system-config-users command in a shell prompt to launch the User Manager, a powerful user management and configuration tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue.
Enter the root password into the Root Password field. Red Hat Enterprise Linux displays the characters as asterisks for security. Type the same password into the Confirm field to ensure it is set correctly. After you set the root password, select Next to proceed.

23.10.  Assign Storage Devices

If you selected more than one storage device on the storage devices selection screen (refer to Section 23.6, “Storage Devices”), anaconda asks you to select which of these devices should be available for installation of the operating system, and which should only be attached to the file system for data storage.
During installation, the devices that you identify here as being for data storage only are mounted as part of the file system, but are not partitioned or formatted.
Assign storage devices
Screen to select storage devices for installation or for data storage only
Figure 23.23. Assign storage devices

The screen is split into two panes. The left pane contains a list of devices to be used for data storage only. The right pane contains a list of devices that are to be available for installation of the operating system.
Each list contains information about the devices to help you to identify them. A small drop-down menu marked with an icon is located to the right of the column headings. This menu allows you to select the types of data presented on each device. Reducing or expanding the amount of information presented might help you to identify particular devices.
Move a device from one list to the other by clicking on the device, then clicking either the button labeled with a left-pointing arrow to move it to the list of data storage devices or the button labeled with a right-pointing arrow to move it to the list of devices available for installation of the operating system.
The list of devices available as installation targets also includes a radio button beside each device. On platforms other than System z, this radio button is used to specify the device to which you want to install the boot loader. On System z this choice does not have any effect. The zipl boot loader will be installed on the disk that contains the /boot directory, which is determined later on during partitioning.
When you have finished identifying devices to be used for installation, click Next to continue.

23.11. Initializing the Hard Disk

If no readable partition tables are found on existing hard disks, the installation program asks to initialize the hard disk. This operation makes any existing data on the hard disk unreadable. If your system has a brand new hard disk with no operating system installed, or you have removed all partitions on the hard disk, click Re-initialize drive.
The installation program presents you with a separate dialog for each disk on which it cannot read a valid partition table. Click the Ignore all button or Re-initialize all button to apply the same answer to all devices.
Warning screen – initializing DASD
Warning screen – initializing DASD
Figure 23.24. Warning screen – initializing DASD

Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN
Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN
Figure 23.25. Warning screen – initializing FCP LUN

Certain RAID systems or other nonstandard configurations may be unreadable to the installation program and the prompt to initialize the hard disk may appear. The installation program responds to the physical disk structures it is able to detect.
To enable automatic initializing of hard disks for which it turns out to be necessary, use the kickstart command clearpart --initlabel (refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Installations)

Detach Unneeded Disks

If you have a nonstandard disk configuration that can be detached during installation and detected and configured afterward, power off the system, detach it, and restart the installation.

23.12.  Upgrading an Existing System

Red Hat does not support upgrades from earlier major versions

Although anaconda provides an option for upgrading from earlier major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, Red Hat does not currently support this. More generally, Red Hat does not support in-place upgrades between any major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. (A major version is denoted by a whole number version change. For example, Red Hat Enteprise Linux 4 and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 are both major versions of Red Hat Enterprise Linux.)
In-place upgrades across major releases do not preserve all system settings, services or custom configurations. Consequently, Red Hat strongly recommends fresh installations when upgrading from one major version to another.
The installation system automatically detects any existing installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. The upgrade process updates the existing system software with new versions, but does not remove any data from users' home directories. The existing partition structure on your hard drives does not change. Your system configuration changes only if a package upgrade demands it. Most package upgrades do not change system configuration, but rather install an additional configuration file for you to examine later.
Note that the installation medium that you are using might not contain all the software packages that you need to upgrade your computer.

Manually Installed Software

Software you have installed manually on your existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux system may behave differently after an upgrade. You may need to manually reinstall or recompile this software after an upgrade to ensure it performs correctly on the updated system.

23.12.1.  Upgrading Using the Installer

Installations are Recommended

In general, Red Hat recommends that you keep user data on a separate /home partition and perform a fresh installation. For more information on partitions and how to set them up, refer to Section 9.12, “Disk Partitioning Setup”.
If you choose to upgrade your system using the installation program, any software not provided by Red Hat Enterprise Linux that conflicts with Red Hat Enterprise Linux software is overwritten. Before you begin an upgrade this way, make a list of your system's current packages for later reference:
rpm -qa --qf '%{NAME} %{VERSION}-%{RELEASE} %{ARCH}\n' > ~/old-pkglist.txt
After installation, consult this list to discover which packages you may need to rebuild or retrieve from sources other than Red Hat.
Next, make a backup of any system configuration data:
su -c 'tar czf /tmp/etc-`date +%F`.tar.gz /etc' 
su -c 'mv /tmp/etc-*.tar.gz /home'
Make a complete backup of any important data before performing an upgrade. Important data may include the contents of your entire /home directory as well as content from services such as an Apache, FTP, or SQL server, or a source code management system. Although upgrades are not destructive, if you perform one improperly there is a small possibility of data loss.

Storing Backups

Note that the above examples store backup materials in a /home directory. If your /home directory is not a separate partition, you should not follow these examples verbatim! Store your backups on another device such as CD or DVD discs or an external hard disk.
For more information on completing the upgrade process later, refer to Section 35.2, “Finishing an Upgrade”.

23.13. Disk Partitioning Setup

Warning — Back up your data

It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your storage devices. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data.

Important — Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you can only use the default partitioning schemes described in this section. You cannot add or remove partitions or file systems beyond those that the installer automatically adds or removes. If you require a customized layout at installation time, you should perform a graphical installation over a VNC connection or a kickstart installation.
Furthermore, advanced options such as LVM, encrypted filesystems, and resizable filesystems are available only in graphical mode and kickstart.
Partitioning allows you to divide your storage devices into isolated sections, where each section behaves as a separate Linux device. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems, or wish to enforce a logical or functional distinction between your storage partitions (such as a /home partition that persistently contains user information).
Disk Partitioning Setup
Choose automatic partitioning or manual partitioning.
Figure 23.26. Disk Partitioning Setup

On this screen you can choose to create the default partition layout in one of four different ways, or choose to partition storage devices manually to create a custom layout.
The first four options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your storage devices yourself. If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, choose one of these options and let the installation program partition the storage devices for you. Depending on the option that you choose, you can still control what data (if any) is removed from the system.
Your options are:
Use All Space
Select this option to remove all partitions on your storage drives (this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as z/VM or z/OS).

Warning

If you select this option, all data on the selected DASD and SCSI storage devices is removed by the installation program.
Replace Existing Linux System(s)
Select this option to remove only Linux partitions (partitions created from a previous Linux installation). This does not remove other partitions you may have on your storage devices (such as z/VM or z/OS partitions).
Shrink Current System
Select this option to resize your current data and partitions manually and install a default Red Hat Enterprise Linux layout in the space that is freed.

Warning

If you shrink partitions on which other operating systems are installed, you might not be able to use those operating systems. Although this partitioning option does not destroy data, operating systems typically require some free space in their partitions. Before you resize a partition that holds an operating system that you might want to use again, find out how much space you need to leave free.
Use Free Space
Select this option to retain your current data and partitions and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in the unused space available on the storage drives. Ensure that there is sufficient space available on the storage drives before you select this option — refer to Section 18.1, “Pre-Installation”.
Create Custom Layout
Select this option to partition storage devices manually and create customized layouts. Refer to Section 23.15, “ Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout ”
Choose your preferred partitioning method by clicking the radio button to the left of its description in the dialog box.
Select Encrypt system to encrypt all partitions except the /boot partition. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption.
To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for you by anaconda appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs.
Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.

23.14.  Encrypt Partitions

If you selected the Encrypt System option, the installer prompts you for a passphrase with which to encrypt the partitions on the system.
Partitions are encrypted using the Linux Unified Key Setup — refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for more information.
Enter passphrase for encrypted partition
The dialog contains text boxes to enter a passphrase and to confirm it.
Figure 23.27.  Enter passphrase for encrypted partition

Choose a passphrase and type it into each of the two fields in the dialog box. You must provide this passphrase every time that the system boots.

Warning — Do not lose this passphrase

If you lose this passphrase, any encrypted partitions and the data on them will become completely inaccessible. There is no way to recover a lost passphrase.
Note that if you perform a kickstart installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, you can save encryption passphrases and create backup encryption passphrases during installation. Refer to Section C.3.2, “Saving Passphrases” and Section C.3.3, “Creating and Saving Backup Passphrases”.

23.15.  Creating a Custom Layout or Modifying the Default Layout

If you chose one of the four automatic partitioning options and did not select Review, skip ahead to Section 23.16, “Write changes to disk”.
If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed.
If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 23.15.5, “Recommended Partitioning Scheme”. At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and usually a swap partition appropriate to the amount of RAM you have on the system.
Anaconda can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation.
Partitioning on System z
The main partitioning screen
Figure 23.28.  Partitioning on System z

The partitioning screen contains two panes. The top pane contains a graphical representation of the DASD, FCP LUN, or logical volume selected in the lower pane.
Above the display, you can review the Drive name (such as /dev/dasda), the Geom (which shows the hard disk's geometry and consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads, and sectors as reported by the hard disk), and the Model of the hard drive as detected by the installation program.
Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.
The lower pane contains a list of all DASDs, FCP LUNs, and logical volumess to be used during installation, as specified earlier in the installation process — refer to Section 23.10, “ Assign Storage Devices ”. Note that if you specified a CMSDASD in your parameter file, DASD names begin at dasdb; dasda was assigned to the CMSDASD and this name is no longer available at this point in the installation process.
Devices are grouped by type. Click on the small triangles to the left of each device type to view or hide devices of that type.
Anaconda displays several details for each device listed:
Device
the name of the device, logical volume, or partition
Size (MB)
the size of the device, logical volume, or partition (in MB)
Mount Point/RAID/Volume
the mount point (location within a file system) on which a partition is to be mounted, or the name of the RAID or logical volume group of which it is a part
Type
the type of partition. If the partition is a standard partition, this field displays the type of file system on the partition (for example, ext4). Otherwise, it indicates that the partition is a physical volume (LVM), or part of a software RAID
Format
A check mark in this column indicates that the partition will be formatted during installation.
Beneath the lower pane are four buttons: Create, Edit, Delete, and Reset.
Select a device or partition by clicking on it in either the graphical representation in the upper pane of in the list in the lower pane, then click one of the four buttons to carry out the following actions:
Create
create a new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Edit
change an existing new partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Delete
remove a partition, logical volume, or software RAID
Reset
undo all changes made in this screen
Finally, note which device is associated with /boot. The kernel files and bootloader sector will be associated with this device. The first DASD or SCSI LUN will be used, and the device number will be used when re-IPLing the post-installed system.

Note — device names and types are illustrative only

The screenshots in the following subsections of this manual sometimes show hard disk types and device names that do not appear as such on System z. These screenshots are only intended to illustrate the installation interface itself and apply equally to DASDs and FCP-attached SCSI disks.

23.15.1.  Create Storage

The Create Storage dialog allows you to create new storage partitions, logical volumes, and software RAIDs. Anaconda presents options as available or unavailable depending on the storage already present on the system or configured to transfer to the system.
Creating Storage
Creating new storage
Figure 23.29. Creating Storage

Options are grouped under Create Partition, Create Software RAID and Create LVM as follows:
Create Partition
Refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for details of the Add Partition dialog.
Create Software RAID
On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently, and you do not need to set it up.
  • RAID Partition — create a partition in unallocated space to form part of a software RAID device. To form a software RAID device, two or more RAID partitions must be available on the system.
  • RAID Device — combine two or more RAID partitions into a software RAID device. When you choose this option, you can specify the type of RAID device to create (the RAID level). This option is only available when two or more RAID partitions are available on the system.
  • RAID Clone — create a mirror of a RAID partition on one storage device on another storage device. This option is only available when at least one RAID partition is available on the system.
Create LVM Logical Volume
  • LVM Physical Volume — create a physical volume in unallocated space.
  • LVM Volume Group — create a volume group from one or more physical volumes. This option is only available when at least one physical volume is available on the system.
  • LVM Logical Volume — create a logical volume on a volume group. This option is only available when at least one volume group is available on the system.

23.15.2. Adding Partitions

To add a new partition, select the Create button. A dialog box appears (refer to Figure 23.30, “Creating a New Partition”).

Note

You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. For more information, refer to Appendix A, An Introduction to Disk Partitions.
Creating a New Partition
Creating a new partition.
Figure 23.30. Creating a New Partition

  • Mount Point: Enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root partition, enter /; enter /boot for the /boot partition, and so on. You can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition. For a swap partition the mount point should not be set — setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient.
  • File System Type: Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 9.14.2.1, “File System Types”.
  • Allowable Drives: This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system. If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have anaconda place partitions where you need them, or let anaconda decide where partitions should go.
  • Size (MB): Enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note, this field starts with 200 MB; unless changed, only a 200 MB partition will be created.
  • Additional Size Options: Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow" (fill up the available hard drive space) to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available.
    If you choose Fill all space up to (MB), you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.
  • Force to be a primary partition: Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Refer to Section A.1.3, “Partitions within Partitions — An Overview of Extended Partitions”, for more information.
  • Encrypt: Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system. Refer to Appendix C, Disk Encryption for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk.
  • OK: Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.
  • Cancel: Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition.

23.15.2.1. File System Types

Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types and file systems. The following is a brief description of the different partition types and file systems available, and how they can be used.
Partition types
  • standard partition — A standard partition can contain a file system or swap space, or it can provide a container for software RAID or an LVM physical volume.
  • swap — Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for additional information.
  • software RAID — Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID device. For more information regarding RAID, refer to the chapter RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) in the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
  • physical volume (LVM) — Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to create an LVM logical volume. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. For more information regarding LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide.
File systems
  • ext4 — The ext4 file system is based on the ext3 file system and features a number of improvements. These include support for larger file systems and larger files, faster and more efficient allocation of disk space, no limit on the number of subdirectories within a directory, faster file system checking, and more robust journalling. The ext4 file system is selected by default and is highly recommended.
  • ext3 — The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system and has one main advantage — journaling. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [11] the file system.
  • ext2 — An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic links, etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters.
  • xfs — XFS is a highly scalable, high-performance file system that supports filesystems up to 16 exabytes (approximately 16 million terabytes), files up to 8 exabytes (approximately 8 million terabytes) and directory structures containing tens of millions of entries. XFS supports metadata journaling, which facilitates quicker crash recovery. The XFS file system can also be defragmented and resized while mounted and active.

    Important — XFS not supported on System z

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 does not support XFS on System z.
  • vfat — The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long filenames on the FAT file system.
  • Btrfs — Btrfs is under development as a file system capable of addressing and managing more files, larger files, and larger volumes than the ext2, ext3, and ext4 file systems. Btrfs is designed to make the file system tolerant of errors, and to facilitate the detection and repair of errors when they occur. It uses checksums to ensure the validity of data and metadata, and maintains snapshots of the file system that can be used for backup or repair.
    Because Btrfs is still experimental and under development, the installation program does not offer it by default. If you want to create a Btrfs partition on a drive, you must commence the installation process with the boot option btrfs. Refer to Chapter 28, Boot Options for instructions.

    Btrfs is still experimental

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 includes Btrfs as a technology preview to allow you to experiment with this file system. You should not choose Btrfs for partitions that will contain valuable data or that are essential for the operation of important systems.

23.15.3.  Create Software RAID

Note — Software RAIDs are unneccessary on System z

On System z, the storage subsystem uses RAID transparently. There is no need to set up a software RAID.
Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAIDs) are constructed from multiple storage devices that are arranged to provided increased performance and — in some configurations — greater fault tolerance. Refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide for a description of different kinds of RAIDs.
To make a RAID device, you must first create software RAID partitions. Once you have created two or more software RAID partitions, select RAID to join the software RAID partitions into a RAID device.
RAID Partition
Choose this option to configure a partition for software RAID. This option is the only choice available if your disk contains no software RAID partitions. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to software RAID
Create a software RAID partition
The create a software RAID partition dialog.
Figure 23.31. Create a software RAID partition

RAID Device
Choose this option to construct a RAID device from two or more existing software RAID partitions. This option is available if two or more software RAID partitions have been configured.
Create a RAID device
The create a RAID device dialog.
Figure 23.32. Create a RAID device

Select the file system type as for a standard partition.
Anaconda automatically suggests a name for the RAID device, but you can manually select names from md0 to md15.
Click the checkboxes beside individual storage devices to include or remove them from this RAID.
The RAID Level corresponds to a particular type of RAID. Choose from the following options:
  • RAID 0 — distributes data across multiple storage devices. Level 0 RAIDs offer increased performance over standard partitions, and can be used to pool the storage of multiple devices into one large virtual device. Note that Level 0 RAIDS offer no redundancy and that the failure of one device in the array destroys the entire array. RAID 0 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 1 — mirrors the data on one storage device onto one or more other storage devices. Additional devices in the array provide increasing levels of redundancy. RAID 1 requires at least two RAID partitions.
  • RAID 4 — distributes data across multiple storage devices, but uses one device in the array to store parity information that safeguards the array in case any device within the array fails. Because all parity information is stored on the one device, access to this device creates a bottleneck in the performance of the array. RAID 4 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 5 — distributes data and parity information across multiple storage devices. Level 5 RAIDs therefore offer the performance advantages of distributing data across multiple devices, but do not share the performance bottleneck of level 4 RAIDs because the parity information is also distributed through the array. RAID 5 requires at least three RAID partitions.
  • RAID 6 — level 6 RAIDs are similar to level 5 RAIDs, but instead of storing only one set of parity data, they store two sets. RAID 6 requires at least four RAID partitions.
  • RAID 10 — level 10 RAIDs are nested RAIDs or hybrid RAIDs. Level 10 RAIDs are constructed by distributing data over mirrored sets of storage devices. For example, a level 10 RAID constructed from four RAID partitions consists of two pairs of partitions in which one partition mirrors the other. Data is then distributed across both pairs of storage devices, as in a level 0 RAID. RAID 10 requires at least four RAID partitions.
RAID Clone
Choose this option to set up a RAID mirror of an existing disk. This option is available if two or more disks are attached to the system.
Clone a RAID device
The clone a RAID device dialog.
Figure 23.33. Clone a RAID device

23.15.4.  Create LVM Logical Volume

Important — LVM Unavailable in Text-Mode Installations

LVM initial set up is not available during text-mode installation. If you need to create an LVM configuration from scratch, establish another SSH connection to the installation image with the root user and run the lvm command.
Logical Volume Management (LVM) presents a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drives or LUNs. Partitions on physical storage are represented as physical volumes that can be grouped together into volume groups. Each volume group can be divided into multiple logical volumes, each of which is analogous to a standard disk partition. Therefore, LVM logical volumes function as partitions that can span multiple physical disks.
To read more about LVM, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Deployment Guide. Note, LVM is only available in the graphical installation program.
LVM Physical Volume
Choose this option to configure a partition or device as an LVM physical volume. This option is the only choice available if your storage does not already contain LVM Volume Groups. This is the same dialog that appears when you add a standard partition — refer to Section 23.15.2, “Adding Partitions” for a description of the available options. Note, however, that File System Type must be set to physical volume (LVM)
Create an LVM Physical Volume
The Create an LVM Physical Volume dialog.
Figure 23.34. Create an LVM Physical Volume

Make LVM Volume Group
Choose this option to create LVM volume groups from the available LVM physical volumes, or to add existing logical volumes to a volume group.
Make LVM Volume Group
The Make LVM Volume Group dialog.
Figure 23.35. Make LVM Volume Group

To assign one or more physical volumes to a volume group, first name the volume group. Then select the physical volumes to be used in the volume group. Finally, configure logical volumes on any volume groups using the Add, Edit and Delete options.
You may not remove a physical volume from a volume group if doing so would leave insufficient space for that group's logical volumes. Take for example a volume group made up of two 5 GB LVM physical volume partitions, which contains an 8 GB logical volume. The installer would not allow you to remove either of the component physical volumes, since that would leave only 5 GB in the group for an 8 GB logical volume. If you reduce the total size of any logical volumes appropriately, you may then remove a physical volume from the volume group. In the example, reducing the size of the logical volume to 4 GB would allow you to remove one of the 5 GB physical volumes.
Make Logical Volume
Choose this option to create an LVM logical volume. Select a mount point, file system type, and size (in MB) just as if it were a standard disk partition. You can also choose a name for the logical volume and specify the volume group to which it will belong.
Make Logical Volume
The Make Logical Volume dialog.
Figure 23.36. Make Logical Volume

23.15.5. Recommended Partitioning Scheme

Configuring efficient swap space for Linux on System z is a complex task. It very much depends on the specific environment and should be tuned to the actual system load.
Refer to the following resources for more information and to guide your decision:

23.16. Write changes to disk

The installer prompts you to confirm the partitioning options that you selected. Click Write changes to disk to allow the installer to partition your hard drive and install Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
Writing storage configuration to disk
The Writing storage configuration to disk dialog box lets you choose to Write changes to disk or to Go back.
Figure 23.37. Writing storage configuration to disk

If you are certain that you want to proceed, click Write changes to disk.

Last chance to cancel safely

Up to this point in the installation process, the installer has made no lasting changes to your computer. When you click Write changes to disk, the installer will allocate space on your hard drive and start to transfer Red Hat Enterprise Linux into this space. Depending on the partitioning option that you chose, this process might include erasing data that already exists on your computer.
To revise any of the choices that you made up to this point, click Go back. To cancel installation completely, switch off your computer.
After you click Write changes to disk, allow the installation process to complete. If the process is interrupted (for example, by you switching off or resetting the computer, or by a power outage) you will probably not be able to use your computer until you restart and complete the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process, or install a different operating system.

23.17. Package Group Selection

Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default package selection or customize packages for your system.
The Package Installation Defaults screen appears and details the default package set for your Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.

Installing in text mode

If you install Red Hat Enterprise Linux in text mode, you cannot make package selections. The installer automatically selects packages only from the base and core groups. These packages are sufficient to ensure that the system is operational at the end of the installation process, ready to install updates and new packages. To change the package selection, complete the installation, then use the Add/Remove Software application to make desired changes.
Package Group Selection
Choose which package groups you want to install.
Figure 23.38. Package Group Selection

By default, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation process loads a selection of software that is suitable for a system deployed as a basic server. Note that this installation does not include a graphical environment. To include a selection of software suitable for other roles, click the radio button that corresponds to one of the following options:
Basic Server
This option provides a basic installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux for use on a server.
Database Server
This option provides the MySQL and PostgreSQL databases.
Web server
This option provides the Apache web server.
Desktop
This option provides the OpenOffice.org productivity suite, graphical tools such as the GIMP, and multimedia applications.
Software Development Workstation
This option provides the necessary tools to compile software on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system.
Minimal
This option provides only the packages essential to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux. A minimal installation provides the basis for a single-purpose server or desktop appliance and maximizes performance and security on such an installation.
If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 23.18, “Installing Packages”.
To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it (refer to Figure 23.38, “Package Group Selection”).
To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen.

23.17.1. Installing from Additional Repositories

You can define additional repositories to increase the software available to your system during installation. A repository is a network location that stores software packages along with metadata that describes them. Many of the software packages used in Red Hat Enterprise Linux require other software to be installed. The installer uses the metadata to ensure that these requirements are met for every piece of software you select for installation.
The basic options are:
  • The ClusteredStorage repository includes packages for storage clustering using the Red Hat global file system (GFS).
  • The HighAvailability repository includes packages for high-availability clustering (also known as failover clustering) using the Red Hat High-availability Service Management component.
  • The LoadBalance repository includes packages for load-balancing clustering using Linux Virtual Server (LVS).
  • The Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 repository is automatically selected for you. It contains the complete collection of software that was released as Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, with the various pieces of software in their versions that were current at the time of release.
For more information about clustering with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6, refer to the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Cluster Suite Overview, available from https://access.redhat.com/knowledge/docs/manuals/.
Adding a software repository
Enter the details of additional software repositories.
Figure 23.39. Adding a software repository

To include software from extra repositories, select Add additional software repositories and provide the location of the repository.
To edit an existing software repository location, select the repository in the list and then select Modify repository.

Network Access Required

If you change the repository information during a non-network installation, such as from a Red Hat Enterprise Linux DVD, the installer prompts you for network configuration information.
If you select Add additional software repositories, the Edit repository dialog appears. Provide a Repository name and the Repository URL for its location.
Once you have located a mirror, to determine the URL to use, find the directory on the mirror that contains a directory named repodata.
Once you provide information for an additional repository, the installer reads the package metadata over the network. Software that is specially marked is then included in the package group selection system.

Backtracking Removes Repository Metadata

If you choose Back from the package selection screen, any extra repository data you may have entered is lost. This allows you to effectively cancel extra repositories. Currently there is no way to cancel only a single repository once entered.

23.17.2.  Customizing the Software Selection

Additional Language Support

Your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system automatically supports the language that you selected at the start of the installation process. To include support for additional languages, select the package group for those languages from the Languages category.

Note — 31-bit applications

Users of IBM System z who want support for developing or running legacy 31-bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecture specific support for their systems.
Select Customize now to specify the software packages for your final system in more detail. This option causes the installation process to display an additional customization screen when you select Next.
Package Group Details
Choose to add or remove optional packages from this package group.
Figure 23.40. Package Group Details

Red Hat Enterprise Linux divides the included software into package groups. For ease of use, the package selection screen displays these groups as categories.
You can select package groups, which group components together according to function (for example, X Window System and Editors), individual packages, or a combination of the two.
To view the package groups for a category, select the category from the list on the left. The list on the right displays the package groups for the currently selected category.
To specify a package group for installation, select the check box next to the group. The box at the bottom of the screen displays the details of the package group that is currently highlighted. None of the packages from a group will be installed unless the check box for that group is selected.
If you select a package group, Red Hat Enterprise Linux automatically installs the base and mandatory packages for that group. To change which optional packages within a selected group will be installed, select the Optional Packages button under the description of the group. Then use the check box next to an individual package name to change its selection.
In the package selection list on the right, you can use the context menu as a shortcut to select or de-select base and mandatory packages or all optional packages.
Package Selection List Context Menu
The Context Menu allows presents you with options to select or deselect packages, and to select or deselect all optional packages in a group.
Figure 23.41. Package Selection List Context Menu

After you choose the desired packages, select Next to proceed. The installer checks your selection, and automatically adds any extra packages required to use the software you selected. When you have finished selecting packages, click Close to save your optional package selections and return to the main package selection screen.
The packages that you select are not permanent. After you boot your system, use the Add/Remove Software tool to either install new software or remove installed packages. To run this tool, from the main menu, select SystemAdministrationAdd/Remove Software. The Red Hat Enterprise Linux software management system downloads the latest packages from network servers, rather than using those on the installation discs.

23.17.2.1.  Core Network Services

All Red Hat Enterprise Linux installations include the following network services:
  • centralized logging through syslog
  • email through SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  • network file sharing through NFS (Network File System)
  • remote access through SSH (Secure SHell)
  • resource advertising through mDNS (multicast DNS)
The default installation also provides:
  • network file transfer through HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
  • printing through CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System)
  • remote desktop access through VNC (Virtual Network Computing)
Some automated processes on your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system use the email service to send reports and messages to the system administrator. By default, the email, logging, and printing services do not accept connections from other systems. Red Hat Enterprise Linux installs the NFS sharing, HTTP, and VNC components without enabling those services.
You may configure your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system after installation to offer email, file sharing, logging, printing and remote desktop access services. The SSH service is enabled by default. You may use NFS to access files on other systems without enabling the NFS sharing service.

23.18. Installing Packages

At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.
Depending on the available resources, you might see the follow